what are different three main IC Technologies? discuss the advantages of each of them.

1 Answer

Answer :

The three different IC technologies are 

1.Full custom VLSI

2.Semi-custom ASIC

3.Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)

The advantages of each of them are as follows :

1. Full custom VLSI

  • All layers of full custom IC is optimised and will, therefore, get excellent performance.
  • Full custom VLSI devices are optimised to perform fix function.
  • Design, testing, and fabrication take too much efforts.
  • The development costs of full custom VLSI is very high.
  • Full custom VLSI is a type of digital logic devices.
  • Full custom VLSI are hardwired.
  • All the logic cells and mask layers of full custom VLSI is customised.
  • Full custom IC is small in size.
  • Full custom IC consume low power.
  • Full custom IC have excellent performance.
  • Microprocessors and RAM used in computers are the examples of full custom VLSI.

2. Semi-custom ASIC

  • In semi-custom ASIC the lower level is fully or partially built.
  • The upper level is not built the upper level is finish by the designer. 
  • The performance of semi-custom ASIC is good.
  • The size of semi-custom ASIC is good.
  • The NRE cost of semi-custom cost of semi-custom ASIC is low then full custom IC.
  • Semi-custom ASIC uses two technology one is standard cell and second is Mask Programmable gate array (MPGA).
  • Programming of semi-custom ASIC is done at fabrication level.
  • Semi-custom ASIC is advantageous for highest performance in short time.
  • Semi-custom ASIC reduces the cost and design time.

3. Programmable Logic Devices (PLD)

  • All layers of Programmable Logic devices are built already.
  • The designer can directly purchase and IC.
  • Programmable Logic devices have low NRE cost.
  • Programmable Logic devices are available instantly.
  • In PLD there is not customised logic cell or mask layer.

Related questions

Description : If Moor's law continues to hold, predict the approximation number of transistor per leading edge IC in the year. 1.2030 2.2050

Last Answer : If Moor's law continues to hold, predict the approximation number of transistor per leading edge IC in the year.1.20302.2050

Description : Compare the annual growth rate of  1.IC capacity 2.Designer productivity.

Last Answer : Compare the annual growth rate of 1.IC capacity2.Designer productivity.

Description : What is Ozonoshpere? Discuss the human technologies which are causing its depletion. What harm to man this depletive state would cause?

Last Answer : Ozonosphere A layer in the stratosphere (at approximately 20 miles) that contains a concentration of ozone sufficient to block most ultraviolet radiation from the sun The ozone layer is a layer ... of the ozone layer. Wind patterns could change, resulting in climatic changes throughout the world.

Description : Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using memory I/O and standard I/O.

Last Answer : Memory mapped I/O and standard I/O are the two methods for communicating microprocessor with peripherals. Processor talks to both memory and peripheral using the same bus.Two ways to talk to a peripheral. ... of standard I/O is no loss of memory addresses to the use as I/O addresses.

Last Answer : UART takes parallel data and transmits serially and UART receives serial data and converts to parallel.A simple UART may possess1.Some configuration registers and2.Two independently operating processors, one ... must write data to the transmit register and/or read data from the received register.

Description : What are the advantages of using Linux?

Last Answer : Advantages of Linux are as follows :Linux is open source and free.Linux Is multiuser and multitasking operating system.Linux is the stable operating system.Linux is reliable.Linux can be modify according to requirements.Linux is the secure operating system.

Description : What are the advantages of IC voltage regulators?

Last Answer : *low cost *high reliability *reduction in size *excellent performance

Description : Give the advantages of IC?

Last Answer : _ Size is less _ High Speed _ Less Power Dissipation

Description : Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of advertising in different forms of media. -Technology

Last Answer : Student should be able to discuss following five points During the process of Adaptation:i. A new narrative is formed.ii. The new narrative in formed another medium.iii. Script-writer and Director ... context of the original may change.v. The new narrative is an interpretation of the original.

Last Answer : Common computation models: Sequential program model Statements, rules for composing statements, semantics for executing them Communicating process model ... Object-oriented model For breaking complex software into simpler, well-defined pieces

Description : Describe different RT level computational and sequential components used to design single function processors.

Last Answer : RT-level combinational components:- To reduce the complexity in digital logic, combinational components are used, which are more powerful than logic gates.  Such combinational ... during a clock edge. An asynchronous inputs value effects the circuit independent of the clock.

Description : List and describe three general approaches to improve designer productivity.

Last Answer : Automation: The task of using a computer program to replace manual design effort. The program replaces manual design effort. Synthesis. Reuse: The ... correctness/completeness of each design step. Hardware/software co-simulation.

Description : Point out the correct statement. a) A virtual machine is a computer that is walled off from the physical computer that the virtual machine is running on b) Virtual machines provide the ... that having resources indirectly addressed means there is some level of overhead d) All of the mentioned

Last Answer : All of the mentioned

Description : How are e-commerce technologies similar to or different from other technologies that have changed commerce in the past?

Last Answer : Need answer

Description : Switching costs refer to the: A. Cost to a producer to exchange equipment in a facility when new technologies emerge. B. Cost of changing the firm’s strategic group. C. Costs suppliers incur when selling to a different customer. D. Costs customers incur when buying from a different supplier.

Last Answer : Costs customers incur when buying from a different supplier.

Description : Switching costs refer to the: A. Cost to a producer to exchange equipment in a facility when new technologies emerge. B. Cost of changing the firm’s strategic group. C. Costs suppliers incur when selling to a different customer. D. Costs customers incur when buying from a different supplier.

Last Answer : Costs customers incur when buying from a different supplier.

Description : One of the reasons a project life cycle is split into phases is to: a. facilitate formal go/no-go decision making during the project. b. balance the costs of work in each phase of ... the major deployments of resources throughout the project. d. chunk work into time periods of similar durations.

Last Answer : a. facilitate formal go/no-go decision making during the project.

Description : Draw a labelled pin diagram of IC-555 and state function of each pin

Last Answer : Pin Name Purpose 1 GND Ground reference voltage, low level (0 V)  2 TRIG The OUT pin goes high and a timing interval starts when this input falls below 1/2 of ... 8 Vcc Positive supply voltage, which is usually between 3 and 15 V depending on the variation.

Description : Sketch pin configuration of IC 723. State functions of each pin. Sketch circuit diagram for obtaining 6V output d.c. regulated voltage using IC 723.

Last Answer : 1) Pin configuration of IC 723 :  2) Functions of each pin:-  V+ and V-: These are the supply voltage terminals of the IC. V+ is the positive terminal and V- is the negative terminal.  Non ... Expression Vout = Vref * (R2 / R1+R2)  Assume any value of R2, R1 can be calculated. 

Description : Which of the following RP technologies uses molten material as the starting material? a.Three-Dimensional Printing b.Fused-Deposition Modeling c.Stereolithography d.Selective Laser Sintering

Last Answer : c.Stereolithography

Description : Explain the steps in the formation of an ovum from an oogonium in humans. or Suggest and explain any three Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to an infertile couple. -Biology

Last Answer : Three reproductive techniques for sterile couple are: (i) In vitro fertilisation The fertilisation outside the body in almost similar conditions as that in the body followed by embryo transfer to the ... to form an embryo in the laboratory in which a sperm is directly injected into the ovum.

Description : What three processor technologies are required to install Windows 8?

Last Answer : Need answer

Description : The CIC/IC his resignation letter should be made to a) The chief justice of India b) The prime minister c) The president d) Any one of them

Last Answer : c) The president

Description : What two characteristics of IC synchros cause them to differ from standard synchros?

Last Answer : Direction of rotation and amount of torque.

Description : The ________ ensures that only one IC is active at a time to avoid a bus conflict caused by two ICs writing different data to the same bus.A.control busB.control instructionsC. address decoder D.CPU

Last Answer : C. address decoder

Description : Give different types of IC.

Last Answer : 1. Analog IC 2. Digital IC 3. Thin and thick film ICs 4. Monolithic ICs 5. Hybrid or multichip ICs

Description : Which one of the following statements in not correct? [CDS 2003] (a) India is the highest oil-seeds and vegetable oil producing country in the world (b) India is the second largest exporter of ... silk in world (d) India is the second largest producer of three-wheeler motor vehicles in the world

Last Answer : Ans: (c)

Description : What is the purpose of having input and output capacitors in three terminal IC regulators?

Last Answer : A capacitor connected between the input terminal and ground cancels the inductive effects due to long distribution leads. The output capacitor improves the transient response.

Description : Discuss about the advantages of Lok Adalats. -SST 10th

Last Answer : The Lok Adalats have been functioning in Delhi, Gujarat and some other States. They have the following advantages: (i) The Lok Adalats work in the spirit of compromise and understanding, as a result both ... Courts of the heavy backlog of the cases. (iv) It reduces delay in the disposal of cases.

Description : Sakshi is preparing a lecture on output device like monitor. Discuss. (i) Give some advantages of the output device ‘monitor’. -Technology

Last Answer : (i) (a) Relatively cheap and reliable.(b) Can display text and graphics in a wide range of colors.(ii) (a) No permanent copy to keep the results as it will disappear when the computer is switched OFF.(b) Unsuitable for users with visual problems.

Description : Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using typed DataSet objects.

Last Answer : Typed DataSet objects allow you to work with data that is represented as members of the .NET common type system. This allows your applications to be aware of the types of data returned in a DataSet and serves ... if you do not know the structure of your data, and can be used with any data source. 

Description : What is store program control (SPC)? Give the organization of centralized SPC. Discuss the advantages of SPC automation in telephone switching.

Last Answer :  In stored program control systems, a program or set of instructions to the computer is stored in its memory and the instructions are executed automatically one by one by the processor. Carrying out ... of services can be provided to customers.  (v) Increase level of automotive in switching 

Description : Discuss the advantages and limitations of electric Vehicles.

Last Answer : Advantages:  1. Rapid acceleration 2. Noise free operation 3. No exhaust fumes 4. High reliability 5. Easy maintenance 6. Regenerating braking 7. No loss power in idling. 8. Easy to drive ... vehicles 4. Life of batteries quite short 5. Limited power 6. The top speed is quite low. 

Description : Discuss the advantages and limitation of prestressed bridge.

Last Answer : Advantages of Prestressed Bridge 1) Have higher load carrying capacity 2) Fewer expansion joints 3) Reduced deflection of girders. 4) Lighter construction. 5) More aesthetic appearance. 6) More ... steel results in high cost. 2) Skill supervision required. 3) Special equipment is required.

Description : Discuss in brief the principle of distance protection and state four advantages of distance protection scheme.

Last Answer : Advantages: 1. System is economical 2. High speed of interruption 3. Suitable for very long and high voltage transmission lines. 4. No problem of pilot wires.

Description : Normally, the FPGA resources are used less than 70% because:  a. Routing becomes excessively complicated b. Power issues c. Clock frequency d. Simulation time increases

Last Answer : Normally, the FPGA resources are used less than 70% because: Routing becomes excessively complicated

Description : Explain placement, routing, and sizing.

Last Answer : Placement: The task of placing and orienting every transistor somewhere on IC. Routing: The task of running wires between the transistors without inserting other wires or transistors. ... wires and transistor provide better performance but consume more power and require more silicon area.

Description : Sketch internal design of 4x3 ROM.

Last Answer : The internal design of 4x3 ROM

Description : Explain parallel and wireless protocols.

Last Answer : Parallel protocols: PCI bus (Peripheral Components Interconnect): PCI stands for Peripheral Components Interconnect. PCI bus is used as a communication line to transmit signals and data ... provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand.

Description : Explain memory hierarchy.

Last Answer : Memory hierarchy: Main memory is large, inexpensive, slow memory stores entire program and data. Cache memory is small, expensive, fast memory stores copy of likely accessed parts of large ... In memory hierarchy the smaller memory is faster and larger memory storage is slower.

Description : Explain memory write ability and storage permanence with suitable diagram.

Last Answer : Write ability and storage permanence of memories: Write ability is the manner and speed at which memory can be written. Storage permanence is the ability of memory to hold stored bits ... Holds bits after power is no longer supplied. High end and middle range of storage permanence.

Description : Build using minimum number of CMOS gates. Three input NAND gate. Two input NOR gate Three input NOR gate Two input AND gate Two input OR gate

Last Answer : Three input NAND gate. Two input NOR gate Three input NOR gate Two input AND gate Two input OR gate

Description : Explain the various steps involved in designing a custom single-purpose processor.

Last Answer : A single purpose processor is a digital circuit designed to execute exactly one program. It is also known as co-processor, accelerator or peripheral. It contains only ... for small quantities. Performance may not match general-purpose processors for same applications.

Description : Explain Inter-process Communication (IPC) using mailbox/queue.

Last Answer : Inter-process communication using mailbox: Mailbox is the Interprocess communication mechanism. A process puts a data message for another process in the mailbox. Mailbox is also called as message exchange. ... a message. In mailbox IPC the sender need not to know the name of the receiver.

Description : Explain arbitration. What is priority arbitrator?

Last Answer : Arbitration: IF multiple peripherals are connected to microprocessor or DMA controller or any resource and they request services simultaneously so which peripheral will get serviced first this is ... Peripherals make requests to arbiter and arbiter makes requests to the resource.

Description : Explain FSM and concurrent process with example.

Last Answer : Finite State Machine (FSM): Finite state machine is a machine which have a transition from state to state. The system have some number of states and at a time the system can ... Y seconds. In sequential execution, the processor executes single task which causes poor processor utilization.

Description : Compose 1k x 8 ROMS into 8k x 8 ROM.

Last Answer : 1k x 8 ROMS into 8k x 8 ROM:

Description : What is design technology? Explain top down design process.

Last Answer : Design technology: Design technology is the manner in which we convert our concept desired system into an implementation. The three main design technologies are 1. Compilation/Synthesis ... general purpose processors and A Gate-level Netlist for special-purpose processors.

Description : Explain data transfer mechanism in I2C protocol. Compare it with CAN and USB protocol based on bit rate and area of applications.

Last Answer : I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit): I2C stands for Inter-Integrated Circuit. I2C is a serial protocol. It was developed by Philips Semiconductor. I2C bus have two communication lines. One is serial data ( ... Mbps this is used for lower speed devices. Using USB we can connect upto 127 devices.

Description : What is Mailbox? Write a note on Mailbox.

Last Answer : Mailbox is used for inter-process communication for sending small messages between tasks or between ISR and task. The Mailbox is used in some Real Time Operating system (RTOS). If the task or ... received by which task or thread is called mailbox client. Mailbox message is a kernel service.