asked
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

The errors involved in traverse are of two types: angular and linear. For important traverse angular values are checked by doubling the angles and linear measurements by chain and tape.

Check For Angular Measurements:

a) Traverse by included angles

i) The sum of measured included angles should be (2n - 4) x 90°

ii) The sum of measured exterior angles should be (2n + 4) x 90°

where n is number of sides.

b) Traverse by deflection angles

The sum of measured deflection angles should be 360° considering the left deflection angles as negative (- ve) and right deflection angles as positive (+ ve).

c) Traverse by observation of bearings

The fore bearing of the last line should be equal to ±180°.

Check For Angular Measurements:

a) Traverse by included angles

i) The sum of measured included angles should be (2n - 4) x 90°

ii) The sum of measured exterior angles should be (2n + 4) x 90°

where n is number of sides.

b) Traverse by deflection angles

The sum of measured deflection angles should be 360° considering the left deflection angles as negative (- ve) and right deflection angles as positive (+ ve).

c) Traverse by observation of bearings

The fore bearing of the last line should be equal to ±180°.

answered
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

**Description :** Bowditch rule is applied to (A) An open traverse for graphical adjustment (B) A closed traverse for adjustment of closing error (C) Determine the effect of local attraction (D) None of the above

**Last Answer :** (B) A closed traverse for adjustment of closing error

**Description :** Demonstrate the utility of Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Civil Engineering with appropriate examples.

**Last Answer :** Applications of Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering 1) Silting of storage reservoirs harbors etc. - Remote sensing technique that makes use of satellite imagery gives idea about the silting of ... Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

**Description :** Apply knowledge of total station to prepare a contour map by describing its procedure.

**Last Answer :** Procedure of preparing contour map using total station1) Preliminary set up - Fix the total station over a station and level it. Press the power button to switch on the instrument. ... computer in the appropriate format. 8) Using appropriate application software, contour map will be prepared.

**Description :** Describe stepwise procedure to prepare the layout of a small building using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** Compare radiation and intersection methods of plane table surveying on any two parameters.

**Last Answer :** Radiation method Intersection method 1. It requires the plane table to occupy a single station. 1. This method requires setting the table up at minimum of two stations. ... for locating inaccessible points by the intersection of the rays drawn from two instruments stations.

**Description :** Describe the procedure to determine co-ordinates of a station using GPS.

**Last Answer :** The following are some general GPS field survey procedures that should be performed at each station, observation, and/or session on a GPS survey. A. Receiver setup : GPS receiver shall be set up ... is to identify any problem that may exist which can be corrected before returning from the field.

**Description :** Explain the principle of techeometry with the help of a neat sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of tacheometry is based on principle of similar triangle in which corresponding sides & altitudes are proportional The ratio of distance of base from apex and length of base is always constant. ... S3=f/i=Constant Where f=focal length of objective and i =stadia intercept

**Description :** Explain the temporary adjustment of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Temporary Adjustments: The temporary adjustments have to be carried out at every setup of the instrument before taking observations with the theodolite A)Setting up: 1) Place the instrument ... . The parallax can be removed by the sharp focusing until the image appears sharp and clear.

**Description :** Describe any one method of orientation of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** Orientation by back sighting method: This method is accurate and is always preferred. Procedure: 1.Suppose A and B are two stations.The plane table is set up over A. The table is leveled by spirit level ... are perfect and needle is exactly at 0-0 , the orientation is said to be perfect.

**Description :** Name two software for GPS.

**Last Answer :** Softwares for GPS 1).GPSWOX 2) iGO 3) HERE 4)Navigon 5)Navman 6)EasyGPS 7) Caliper

**Description :** List two uses of EDM.

**Last Answer :** 1.It is useful for measuring the distances that are difficult to access. 2. It is useful in topographical survey. 3.Measurement of base line in triangulation survey can be carried out speedily and ... construction of gravity dams. 5.It is useful in fixing alignment of road, railways, canals etc.

**Description :** State the function of Anallatic lens..

**Last Answer :** The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

**Description :** Define Latitude and Departure.

**Last Answer :** Latitude : The projection of survey line parallel to meridian is called latitude. OR Projection of survey line parallel to N-S direction is called latitude. Departure: The projection of survey ... is called departure. OR Projection of survey line parallel to E-W direction is called departure.

**Description :** Define Swinging & Transiting

**Last Answer :** Swinging: It is the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane about its vertical axis. Transiting: It is the process of turning the telescope through 180° in a vertical plane about its horizontal axis

**Description :** State two advantages of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** 1.it is most rapid method of surveying. 2. it is suitable for magnetic areas. 3.The map can be prepared easily ,and does not require greater skill. 4.Irregular objects can be represented ... is less costly. 7 The check lines detects the errors of measurement and plotting on field itself.

**Description :** State any four characteristics of contours with sketches.

**Last Answer :** Characteristics of contours - The characteristics of contours are described in following statements with the help of necessary sketches. 1. All the points on contour line represent same reduced level or equal ... 8. The summit of four ridge lines represents saddle as shown in sketch 8.

**Description :** Explain direct method of contouring.

**Last Answer :** Direct method of contouring - In this method of contouring, the contours of required reduced level are plotted on ground itself. The procedure of direct method of contouring is as follows. ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** Give classification of curve and explain any one in detail.

**Last Answer :** Types of curve : The curve is classified broadly in two categories 1. Horizontal curve - When the points of curve are joined in horizontal plane then it is known as horizontal curve. 2. Vertical ... roadway or railway tracks. Vertical curves are of four types. a) Summit curve b) Valley curve

**Description :** Define transiting and swinging of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Transiting of theodolite - The vertical movement of telescope about its horizontal axis through 360 degree is known as Transiting of telescope of theodolite. Swinging of theodolite - The lateral or ... of theodolite about its vertical axis through 360 degree is known as Swinging of theodolite.

**Description :** What do you mean by zero circle in area measurement?

**Last Answer :** Zero Circle - It is the circle formed due to sliding of wheel of mechanical planimeter without changing the reading of circular measuring disc. It is unmeasured circular area on drawing sheet due to non-rotation of counter disc.

**Description :** Give the main features of total station

**Last Answer :** 1. Easy access to any desired programme and mode of selection 2. Automatic atmospheric correction 3. Guide message arrangement 4. Higher distance resolution 5. Two speed tangent resolution 6. Tri axis compensation 7. East to read arrangement 8. Detachable tribranch facility

**Description :** Define following terms and give any two components of each : 1. GIS 2. GPS

**Last Answer :** GIS:- A geographic information system is a computer based tool that allows you to create, manipulate, analyze ,store & display information based on its location. Components:- 1) hardware 2) ... position &location speed and direction. Components:- 1) Antenna 2) Radio frequency

**Description :** Enlist the advantages and disadvantages of total station

**Last Answer :** Advantages of Total station - 1) Great speed of the work 2) Better accuracy in the measurements 3) Low power consumptions 4) Less time required for work. 5) Less man power required ... Total station - 1) Its high initial cost 2) There are no effective checks over its measurements.

**Description :** What is meant by zero circle? State the advantages of digital planimeter over polar planimeter.

**Last Answer :** Zero circle:- When the tracing point is moved along a circle without rotation of the wheel i.e. when the wheel slides without any change in reading ,the circle is known as the zero circle or ... are required for area. 3) It gives more accurate reading 4) Less time required for measurement

**Description :** Give the classification of curve and Define 1.Transition curve 2. Reverse curve

**Last Answer :** Classification of curve is as follows1) Horizontal curve a) Simple curve b) Compound curve c) Reverse curve d) Transition curve e) Lemniscate curve 2) Vertical curve a) Summit curve ... their centers lie on opposites sides of the curve . They have one common tangent.

**Description :** State the component parts of micro optic theodolite . How it is superior to a transit theodolite. Also write the situation where it is suitable.

**Last Answer :** Component parts of micro optic theodolite 1) Telescope 2) Magnification with standard eyepiece. 3) Level tube 4) Foot screws. 5) Tribatch & Trivet 6) Optical micrometer 7) Changing nob 8) ... is most suitable 3) This instrument is durable for harsh environments. 4) It is simple in use.

**Description :** What are the different methods of contouring? Describe any one method along with sketch . Also write the situation where it is suitable

**Last Answer :** There are two methods of contouring:- 1. Direct Method 2. Indirect Method - a. By squares b. By cross section c. By tacheometric Direct method of contouring - In this ... joining these identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** State any four uses of digital theodolite.

**Last Answer :** The uses of digital theodolite are as follows. 1. To measure horizontal angle vey precisely up to one second. 2. To measure vertical angle accurately up to one second. 3. To set ... reduced levels of ridge and valley lines accurately. 5. To determine horizontal distance more precisely

**Description :** Define tacheometry. State the principle of tacheometry with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometry : It is the branch of angular surveying in which horizontal and vertical distances are determined from instrumental observations only, is known as tacheometry. Principle of tacheometry : ... to corresponding staff intercept remains constant as shown below in figure 3

**Description :** Define grade contour. Give the procedure to locate grade contour on contour map with suitable sketch.

**Last Answer :** Grade Contour - It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** List any four modern survey instruments.

**Last Answer :** Following are the modern survey instruments. 1. Digital Level 2. Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) 3. Micro-optic Theodolite 4. Total Station 5. Global Positioning System (GPS) Device 6. Aerial Camera 7. Remote Sensors

**Description :** State any two situations under which tacheometry is preferred.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometry is preferred in following situations. 1. When horizontal distances can't be measured by chaining on highly uneven ground. 2. When vertical distances or reduced levels can't be measured ... is necessary to fill the details in topographic map and contour map with low degree of precision.

**Description :** State any four uses of transit theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Transit theodolite is useful for the following. 1. To measure the horizontal and vertical angles between survey stations. 2. To measure deflection angles between survey lines. 3. To measure horizontal ... tubular compass to it. 6. To prolong or extend the survey line up to required destination.

**Description :** Write the use of Gale’s table.

**Last Answer :** Gale’s traverse table is useful to find out independent coordinates of theodolite traverse by applying necessary corrections to consecutive co-ordinates of the same traverse. Further these independent co-ordinates are useful to draw the accurate traverse without linear and angular errors.

**Description :** Give the simplest method of finding the area of zero of a zero circle from manufacturers table.

**Last Answer :** The area of zero circle can be find out simply by using following formula. A = M x C Where, A = Area of zero circle M = Multiplier or multiplying constant provided in manufacturers table C = Constant of planimeter provide in manufacturers table

**Description :** What is a contour map? Write any two objects of preparing contour map.

**Last Answer :** Contour map : It the map showing nature of topography of any particular field with the help of contour lines indicating reduced levels of ground. Objects of preparing contour map : Contour map ... . 4. To excavate the canal and contour cut trenches along hillside under watershed management works.

**Description :** In a contour map, if contours are crossing each other, what will be nature of topography? Draw the sketch to support your answer.

**Last Answer :** If contours are crossing or intersecting each other, then there is overhanging cliff as shown in figure 1 below.

**Description :** State the possible error while using planimeter for finding area of an irregular figure.

**Last Answer :** Possible error while using planimeter for finding area of an irregular figure: 1) Instrumental Error i) Roller of planimeter which must rotate the axis freely and withot vibrations, if not, then ... vi) Error in setting of arm length. vii) Overlapping or repetition in tracing boundary.

**Description :** What are the additive and multiplying constants of planimeter?

**Last Answer :** Area of the irregular figure measured by planimeter is given by: Where M = Multiplying constant C = Additive costant Multiplying Constant: It is the multiplier whose value is marked on ... It is taken in to consideration only when anchor point is inside the figure, else it is zero.

**Description :** Describe the use of digital theodolite for measurement of horizontal and vertical angle.

**Last Answer :** I) Procedure for measurement of horizontal angle with digital theodolite: 1) Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Approximate leveling by leg adjustment and ... and take the reading at B. 9) Difference of two angle gives required vertical angle AOB

**Description :** State the meaning of degree of curve and long chord.

**Last Answer :** Degree of curve : The angle subtended at the centre by a standard chord of 30 m length, is known as degree of curve. Long Chord : The straight line joining rear tangent point and forward tangent point is called as long chord of curve.

**Description :** Write down the procedure for determination of tacheometric constants.

**Last Answer :** Method of determining tacheometric constants in the field1) A fairly level ground is selected. The tacheometer is set up at O and pegs are fixed at A, B & C, known distances apart. 2) The staff ... 5) By solving the equations in pairs, find tacheometric constants (f/i) and (f+d)

**Description :** Write principle of stadia method.

**Last Answer :** Principle of stadia method: The stadia method is based on the principle that the ratio of the perpendicular to the base is constant in similar isosceles triangles. In figure, let two ... stadia interval factor and the constant (f + d) is known as the additive constant of the instrument

**Description :** Differentiate between active system and passive system of remote sensing.

**Last Answer :** Sr.No. Active System Passive System 1 In this system man made resources of energy are used. In this system natural sources of are used. 2 The electromagnetic waves ... . This system is limitedly useful in land use and land cover analysis and small scale mapping.

**Description :** Write four applications of GIS.

**Last Answer :** Applications of GIS:- 1) Map making 2) Site selection 3) Mineral Exploration 4) Land use planning and management 5) Environmental Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

**Description :** How will you locate grade contour on contour map.

**Last Answer :** Procedure for establishing grade contour on ground : The grade contour along hill side can be established by following procedure. 1. Suppose a grade contour of 1 in 30 is to be established on ground. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** Draw a neat sketch of simple curve showing all elements.

**Last Answer :** Simple curve

**Description :** State the principle of EDM with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of EDM:- The fig shows a survey line AB, the length D of which is to be measured using EDM equipment placed at ends A. Let a transmitter be placed at A to propagate electromagnetic waves towards B ... measured at A. This will require EDM timing devices with an accuracy of 1 10-9s.

**Description :** Describe the temporary adjustment of digital level.

**Last Answer :** Temporary adjustment of digital level:- 1) Setup stability:- The digital level should be fixed by rotating its screw head on top of tripod stand. Set tripod legs wide apart to increase the stability ... several times if required. 5) Focus the telescope properly to get clear image of cross hairs .

**Description :** How the layout is done using total station?

**Last Answer :** Layout total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left corner. 2. Work out ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.