Single phase motors are very widely used in home, offices, workshops etc. as power delivered to most of the houses and offices is single phase. In addition to this, single phase motors are reliable, cheap in cost, simple in construction and easy to repair.
Single phase electric motors can be classified as:
1. Single phase induction motor (Split phase, Capacitor and shaded pole etc)
2. Single phase synchronous motor
3. Repulsion motor etc.
Single Phase Induction Motor
Construction of a single phase induction motor is similar to the construction of three phase induction motor having squirrel cage rotor, except that the stator is wound for single phase supply. Stator is also provided with a 'starting winding' which is used only for starting purpose. This can be understood from the schematic of single phase induction motor at the left.
Working Principle Of Single Phase Induction Motor:
When the stator of a single phase motor is fed with single phase supply, it produces alternating flux in the stator winding. The alternating current flowing through stator winding causes induced current in the rotor bars (of the squirrel cage rotor ) according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction.
This induced current in the rotor will also produce alternating flux. Even after both alternating fluxes are set up, the motor fails to start . However, if the rotor is given a initial start by external force in either direction, then motor accelerates to its final speed and keeps running with its rated speed. This behavior of a single phase motor can be explained by double-field revolving theory.