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Explain the process of commutation in a dc machine. Explain what are inter-poles and why they are required in a dc machine. 
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Commutation: It is phenomenon when an armature coil moves under the influence of one polepair; it carries constant current in one direction. As the coil moves into the influence of the next pole- pair, the current in it must reverse. This reversal of current in a coil is called commutation. Several coils undergo commutation simultaneously. The reversal of current is opposed by the static coil emf and therefore must be aided in some fashion for smooth current reversal, which otherwise would result in sparking at the brushes. The aiding emf is dynamically induced into the coils undergoing commutation by means of compoles or interpoles, which are series excited by the armature current. These are located in the interpolar region of the main poles and therefore influence the armature coils only when these undergo commutation.
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