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Description : In time-cost optimization of a project, crashing is done. (A) On all the activities (B) On all the activities lying on the critical path (C) Only on activities lying on the ... critical activities and those that become critical at any stage of crashing in the order of ascending cost slope

Last Answer : D

Description : Define memory segmentation. How memory segmentation is achieved in 8086? State advantages of memory segmentation.

Last Answer : Memory Segmentation: The memory in an 8086 microprocessor is organized as a segmented memory. The physical memory is divided into 4 segments namely, - Data segment, Code Segment, Stack Segment and Extra ... 16 bit size. 6) Programs and data can be stored separately from each other in segmentation.

Description : Enlist the features of 8085 microprocessor.

Last Answer : Features of 8085 microprocessor: 1. 16 address line so 216=64 Kbytes of memory can be addressed. 2. Operating clock frequency is 3MHz and minimum clock  frequency is 500 KHz. 3. On chip bus ... cycle TTL clock 10. Provide 2 serial I/O lines, so peripheral can be interfaced with  8085 μp

Description : Describe the functions of stack pointer and program counter of 8085. 

Last Answer : Stack pointer: 1. It is a 16 bit register which is used to store the address of topmost filled memory location of stack memory. 2. SP always points current top of stack. 3. If data is ... of memory and in 8085 the address of memory is 16 bit. Hence program counter is 16 bit register.

Description : Describe re-entrant procedure with the help of schematic diagram.

Last Answer : Re-entrant Procedures: A procedure is said to be re-entrant, if it can be interrupted, used and re-entered without losing or writing over anything. To be a re-entrant, Procedure ... program execution flow reenters in the procedure1. These types of procedures are called reentrant procedures.

Description : Explain the following assembler directives. 1) DB 2) DUP 3) EQU 4) ENDs.

Last Answer : 1) DB (Define Byte or Data Byte): This is used to define a byte type variable. The range of values : 0 - 255 for unsigned numbers -128 to 127 for signed numbers This can be used ... the end of the segment The directives SEGMENT, ENDS are always enclosed in data, code, stack and extra segments.

Description : Write an algorithm and draw the flowchart to find sum of series of numbers. 

Last Answer : Algorithim to find sum of series of numbers: 1. Initialize data segment 2. Initialize byte counter and memory pointer to read number from array. 3. Initialize sum variable to 0 4. sum=sum+number from array ... Decrement byte counter 9. If byte counter=0 then step 10 else step 4 10. Stop

Description : Write an algorithm to subtract two 16 bit numbers (With borrow) in 8086 microprocessor.

Last Answer : Algorithm for 16 bit numbers subtraction with borrow: 1. Load 0000H into CX register (for borrow) 2. Load the first number into AX(accumulator) 3. Load the second number into BX register 4. Subtract ... . Move data from AX(accumulator) to memory 8. Move data from CX register to memory 9. Stop

Description : Enlist any four addressing modes of 8086 microprocessor.

Last Answer : Addressing modes of 8086 : 1. Immediate 2. Direct 3. Register 4. Register indirect 5. Indexed 6. Register relative 7. Based indexed 8. Relative based indexed 9. Implied

Description : State the use of OF and DF flags of 8086 microprocessor.

Last Answer : Overflow Flag: This flag is set if an overflow occurs, i.e. if the result of a signed operation is large enough to be accommodated in destination register. Direction Flag: It selects either increment or decrement mode for DI &/or SI register during string instructions.

Description : Define pipelining.

Last Answer : Pipelining: Process of fetching the next instruction while the current instruction is executing is called pipelining which will reduce the execution time.

Description : State the functions of following pins of 8085 1) SOD 2) HLDA

Last Answer : 1) SOD: Serial Output data SOD pin is used to transmit data serially from accumulator to the external devices connected to the pin.  2) HLDA: Microprocessor generates HLDA signal to acknowledge requesting device after HOLD signal.

Description : State the functions of temporary registers of 8085 microprocessor.

Last Answer : Temp Register (8 bits) is also called as operand register as it is used by μp for storing one of the operands during an operation and also for storing the result of any execution temproary.

Description : Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials

Last Answer : We have now looked at a number of ways in which matter can be grouped, such as into metals, semi-metals and non-metals; electrical conductors and insulators, and thermal conductors and insulators. ... information must be stored, in computers and TV's, as well as in generators and electric motors.

Description : Metals, Metalloids and Non-metals

Last Answer : The elements in the periodic table can also be divided according to whether they are metals, metalloids or non-metals. The zigzag line separates all the elements that are metals from those that ... more metals then non-metals. Metals, metalloids and non-metals all have their own specific properties.

Description : Names and formulae of substances

Last Answer : Think about what you call your friends. Some of your friends might have full names (long names) and a nickname (short name). These are the words we use to tell others who or what we are ... that was used earlier, the compound name is a combination of the names of the elements but slightly changed.

Description : Outline the process of accounting.

Last Answer : Process of accounting An accounting system tracks and controls the income and expenses of a business. Accounting systems can be as simple as a pen and notepad, and can be as complex ... find themselves required to create reports for external stakeholders, such as lenders and private investors. 

Description : Explain law of demand and law of supply.

Last Answer : The Law of Demand The law of demand states that, if all other factors remain equal, the higher the price of a good, the less people will demand that good. In other words, the higher the price, the lower ... ). At point B, the quantity supplied will be Q2 and the price will be P2, and so on.

Description : Describe the concept of fixed cost, variable cost and total cost.

Last Answer : Total cost  Total cost refers to total expense incurred in reaching a particular level of output, if such total cost is divided by quantity produced average or unit cost is obtained. The ... . Direct material, direct labour, direct expenses, variable overheads are some examples of variable cost.

Description : Explain the procedure of detailed energy audit.

Last Answer : Detailed Energy Audit Detailed audit provides a detailed project implementation plan for a facility, since it evaluate all major energy using systems. This type of audit offers the ... Management aspects of design and operating data collection, field measurements, data analysis, and training

Description : Outline any four duties and responsibilities of energy manager.

Last Answer : Responsibilities and Duties of Energy Manager Responsibilities Prepare an annual activity plan and present to management concerning financially attractive investments to reduce energy costs Establish an ... and manner as may be provided in the regulations of the Energy Conservation Act.

Description : List the advantages and disadvantages of hydropower. 

Last Answer : Hydropower plant Advantages Renewable - Hydroelectric energy is renewable. This means that we cannot use up. However, there's only a limited number of suitable reservoirs where hydroelectric power ... MW under construction. Only one of these projects was started in the last two years. 

Description : Illustrate the benefits of hydrogen energy as a future energy.

Last Answer : Benefits of Hydrogen Energy The use of hydrogen greatly reduces pollution. When hydrogen is combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, energy in the form of electricity is produced. This electricity can ... sources of fuel. This ideally means that you need less hydrogen to complete an enormous task.

Description : Explain any four important properties of petroleum fuel.

Last Answer : Properties of petroleum fuel The flash point of a volatile fuel is the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. The flash point is an important concept in ... of combustion contain the water vapor and that the heat in the water vapor is not recovered.

Description : State various types of energy losses with their control measures in any utility.

Last Answer : Energy loss and control in any utility Energy saving opportunities in cooling tower (These measures will save electrical energy used in fan or pumps) 1. Follow manufacturer's recommended ... Preheating combustion air 10. Switching from steam to air atomization Switching to lower cost fuel

Description : Explain construction and working of solar water heater.

Last Answer : Solar Water Heater  Construction A typical domestic solar water heater consists of a hot water storage tank and one or more flat plate collectors. Inlet and outlet pipes are connected ... the tank continues automatically due to density difference between hot and cold water (thermosyphon effect).

Description : Define calorific value. Differentiate between net calorific value and gross calorific value.

Last Answer : Calorific value of fuel  The amount of energy produced by the complete combustion of a material or fuel.  Measured in units of energy per amount of material, e.g. kJ/kg. Difference between NCV and GCV ... is not an actual heat available for use. It is an actual heat available for use.

Description : Describe profitability evaluation by rate of return on investment. 

Last Answer : Profitability by ROI Return on investment, or ROI, is the most common profitability ratio. There are several ways to determine ROI, but the most frequently used method is to divide net profit by total ... investment types. Return on investment = (revenue − cost of goods sold) / cost of goods sold

Description : Explain energy conservation and its importance.

Last Answer : Energy conservation Energy Conservation is the deliberate practice or an attempt to save electricity, fuel oil or gas or any other combustible material, to be able to put to additional use for ... are produced. e) Generally to relieve shortage and improve development. f) Advantage in PAT scheme.

Description : Explain construction of biogas plant.

Last Answer : Fixed Roof Biogas Plant  Construction It consits of inlet tank, digester and outlet tank. Sluury is prepeared in inlet tank. Mass is digeated in digester. Gas is collected at the top dome. Digested mass ... digester gas can supply useful energy in the form of hot air, hot water or steam.

Description : Classify energy sources with two examples each.

Last Answer : Types of energy Source  Primary energy source is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any conversion or transformation process. The primary energy sources are derived from: the sun, ... energy sources: These sources can renew again and again. e.g Solar, Wind, Biomass, Hydro

Description : State two objectives of energy audit.

Last Answer : Objective of energy audit  To determine ways to reduce energy consumption per unit of product output or to lower operating costs. Energy Audit provides a bench-mark" (Reference ... effective use of energy throughout the organization. Provide detailed documentation for monitoring of energy use

Description : List the two factors affecting on cost estimation.

Last Answer : Factors affecting cost estimation 1) Labor Wage Rates 2) Inflation Factor 3) Project Schedule 4) Quality of Plans & Specifications 5) Reputation of Engineer 6) Regulatory Requirements 7) Insurance Requirements 8) Size and Type of Project 9) Location 10) Contingency

Description : Define balance sheet.

Last Answer : Balance sheet  It is a statement of the assets, liabilities, and capital of a business or other organization at a particular point in time, detailing the balance of income and expenditure over the preceding period.

Description : List various types of costs. 

Last Answer : Types of Cost Total Cost Fixed Cost Variable cost Direct cost Indirect Cost

Description : State the use of Lux Meter and Tachometer in energy audit.

Last Answer : Use of lux meter – to measure intensity of light Use of tachometer – to measure speed

Description : List four environmental benefits of wind energy.

Last Answer : Environmental benefits of Wind Energy 1. Renewable & Sustainable 2. Environmentally Friendly 3. Reduces Fossil Fuel Consumption 4. Small Footprint

Description : State any two units of energy.

Last Answer : Units of energy: Joule Calorie Kilowatt Kilowatt-hour Watt

Description : State the insulating materials used in motor. Write temperature class and withstand temperature ranges for them. 

Last Answer : The insulating materials used in motor are as belows: 1. Cotton, 2. Silk, or paper, 3. Press board, 4. Resins 5. PVC 6. Cellulose-Fiber, 7. Enameled coating, etc  ... Over 180° Mica, porcelain, ceramics, glass quartz, asbestos, treated glass fiber or treated asbestos. etc.

Description : Explain MCB and ELCB with connection diagram supplying single phase load. 

Last Answer : OR OR Explanation: * MCB provides short circuit protection. * MCB provides overload protection * ELCB provides earth fault protection. * MCB is in series with ... occurs, the ELCB cuts off the power within the time of 0.1 sec. automatically to protect the personnel. 

Description : Select insulating materials for following parts : (i) Insulation between heating element and base plate of electric iron. (ii) Insulation used over copper or aluminium conductor used for making coils. (iii) Transformer bushings. (iv) Insulation between transmission line and pole.

Last Answer : Parts Insulating Materials  Insulation between heating element and base plate of electric iron. Mica Insulation used over copper or aluminium conductor used for making coils.  ... Transformer bushings Porcelain  Insulation between transmission line and pole. Porcelain

Description : Explain the suitability of aluminium as an electrical conductor with respect to its mechanical and electrical properties. 

Last Answer : Following are requirements of conductor:- i) High conductivity :  Material should have high conductivity, So that * cross section of conductor (size) reduces, * Copper losses reduces, * So Efficiency ... . Boiling point is 1820°C 9. Specific gravity is 2.7 10. High resistance to corrosion. 

Description : State the type of insulating materials under Class Y and Class B.

Last Answer : The type of insulating materials under Class Y : 1. Cotton  2. Silk 3. Paper 4. Rubber 5. PVC The type of insulating materials under Class B: 1. Backelite 2. Impregnated varnish 3. Mica 4. Fiber glass 5. Asbestos 

Description : State gaseous and liquid insulating material.

Last Answer : i) Gaseous insulating material : 1. Air 2. Nitrogen 3. Hydrogen 4. SF6 ii) liquid insulating material: 1. Transformer oil 2. Capacitor oil 3. Cable oil 4. Pyranol 5. Savotal 6. Savol 7. Vegetable oil 8. Silicon liquids

Description : Types of rolling mills and its applications

Last Answer : Types of rolling mills and its applications (1) Two-high rolling mill: used in blooming and slabbing mills (2) Three-high rolling mill: used for making plates or sections. (3) Four- ... : This mill is used for rolling stainless steel and other high strength steel sheets of thin gauge.

Description : Differentiate between soldering and brazing

Last Answer : Answer: Comparison of brazing and soldering

Description : Compare between Hot rolling and Cold rolling.

Last Answer : Hot rolling Cold rolling  Metal is fed to the rolls after being heated above the recrytallization temperature. Metal is fed to the rolls when it is below the recrytallization temperature. ... Hot rolling is the father of the cold rolling. Cold rolling follows the hot rolling.

Description : Define Feed and speed in shaping machine

Last Answer : 1) Feed: Feed (S) is the relative movement of the work or tool in a direction perpendicular to the axis of reciprocation of the ram per double stroke. It is expressed in mm per stroke. 2) Speed: ... speed is the speed at which the metal is removed by the cutting tool in a period of one minute.

Description : Draw and explain V and inverted V curves for synchronous motor.

Last Answer : V curves' and inverted V curves' for Synchronous Motor:  V curve:  V curve is a plot of the stator current versus field current for different constant loads. The graph is plotted ... Vcurves of synchronous motor. The highest point on each of these curves indicates unity power factor.

Description : Explain construction and working of AC servomotor.

Last Answer : Construction of AC Servo Motor: AC servo motor is mainly composed of a stator and a rotor. Laminated stator core is usually made of silicon steel. Two phase windings are placed in the stator slots at 90 degree ... on rotor. Due to the force or torque acting on the rotor, it is set in motion.