asked
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

The errors eliminated by repetition method are :

1) Errors due to eccentricity of verniers and centers are eliminated by taking the both vernier readings and averaging them.

2) Errors due to in adjustments of line of collimation and trunnion axis are eliminated by taking both face left and face right readings.

3) Errors due to inaccurate graduations are eliminated by taking the readings at different parts of circle.

4) Errors due to inaccurate bisection of object may compensate each other.

5) Errors due to improper levelling can be minimized

1) Errors due to eccentricity of verniers and centers are eliminated by taking the both vernier readings and averaging them.

2) Errors due to in adjustments of line of collimation and trunnion axis are eliminated by taking both face left and face right readings.

3) Errors due to inaccurate graduations are eliminated by taking the readings at different parts of circle.

4) Errors due to inaccurate bisection of object may compensate each other.

5) Errors due to improper levelling can be minimized

answered
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

**Description :** State the procedure of measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method.

**Last Answer :** The horizontal angle is measured very precisely using method of repetition as follows : 1) Set-up the theodolite over station O and level it properly. 2) Set the vernier A and vernier B at 0°0'0 ... repeat the same procedure. 9) The mean of both angles gives the horizontal angle AOB.

**Description :** State the procedure for measuring a horizontal angle by method of repetition.

**Last Answer :** Procedure : 1. Set up the instrument over Q and level it accurately with the telescope in the normal position. 2. Set the vernier A to 360o. Loosen the lower clamp direct the telescope ... final reading by three. 14. By taking average of both the face, horizontal angle PQR is obtained.

**Description :** Explain the method of repetition to measure horizontal angle using transit theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1 Suppose the angle AOB is to be measured by the repetition process. The theodolite is set over O. The instrument is centered and levelled properly.Vernier A is set at 00 and vernier is at 1800 ... 8 The mean of the two angles obtained from two faces gives the actual angle AOB.

**Description :** Mention different sources of errors in theodolite surveying.

**Last Answer :** Sources of errors in theodolite surveying:- i) Instrumental errors1) Non adjustment of plate bubble. 2) Line of collimation not being perpendicular to horizontal axis. 3) Line of collimation ... causes error due to irregular refraction. 2) High winds cause vibration in instrument.

**Description :** State the methods of locating contours and explain direct method.

**Last Answer :** Methods of locating contours :- 1) Direct method 2) Indirect method i) By cross section ii) By Squares (Block Contouring) iii) Tachometric Method Direct method of contouring:- In ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** State Direct & indirect method of contouring.Explain tacheometric method.

**Last Answer :** Method of contouring are: 1.Direct method 2 Indirect methods which include a)by cross section b)by squares c) tachometric contouring method. Tachometric contouring method. 1.This method ... calculated by tacheometry formulae. 4 The survey is plotted and then contour lines are interpolated.

**Description :** Describe any one method of orientation of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** Orientation by back sighting method: This method is accurate and is always preferred. Procedure: 1.Suppose A and B are two stations.The plane table is set up over A. The table is leveled by spirit level ... are perfect and needle is exactly at 0-0 , the orientation is said to be perfect.

**Description :** Explain direct method of contouring.

**Last Answer :** Direct method of contouring - In this method of contouring, the contours of required reduced level are plotted on ground itself. The procedure of direct method of contouring is as follows. ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** What are the different methods of contouring? Describe any one method along with sketch . Also write the situation where it is suitable

**Last Answer :** There are two methods of contouring:- 1. Direct Method 2. Indirect Method - a. By squares b. By cross section c. By tacheometric Direct method of contouring - In this ... joining these identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** Give the simplest method of finding the area of zero of a zero circle from manufacturers table.

**Last Answer :** The area of zero circle can be find out simply by using following formula. A = M x C Where, A = Area of zero circle M = Multiplier or multiplying constant provided in manufacturers table C = Constant of planimeter provide in manufacturers table

**Description :** Write principle of stadia method.

**Last Answer :** Principle of stadia method: The stadia method is based on the principle that the ratio of the perpendicular to the base is constant in similar isosceles triangles. In figure, let two ... stadia interval factor and the constant (f + d) is known as the additive constant of the instrument

**Description :** Compare theodolite traversing by included angle method with deflection angle method. Which one is suitable?

**Last Answer :** Sr.No. Included angle method of traversing Deflection angle method of traversing 1 This method is most suitable for closed traverse. This method is most suitable for open traverse. ... is suitable for long narrow strip like survey of roads, rivers, canals, railways, etc.

**Description :** Explain the setting of curve by Rankine’s deflection angle method.

**Last Answer :** Rankine's deflection angle Method:- 1) Set up theodolite at first tangent point, T1 and level it carefully, set the vernier A to 3600 2) bisect the ranging rod at the point of ... . The angle thus obtained will be set on the vernier of the theodolite for setting out the curve.

**Description :** Describe the method of locating contours by square method.

**Last Answer :** 1) The method of square is indirect method of locating contours. 2) The method of squares is used where the area to be surveyed is small and not much undulating. 3) The area to be surveyed ... points are written on the respective corners. 6) The contours are then interpolated between them.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of curve setting by method of offsets from long chord

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Divide the long chord into an even number of equal parts say 8,10,12 etc. 2. Set out the offset as calculated from the formula and obtain the required points on the ... ED, the offset for the right half of the curve will be the same as those on the left half side.

**Description :** Describe the method of setting out simple curve by using the method of offset from long chord with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Given data: Direction of two straights, chainage of point of intersection, radius of curve. Procedure: 1) Set theodolite over B and measure deflection angle Ф 2) Calculate tangent length by ... equal to tangent length. 4) Divide long chord into even number of equal parts.

**Description :** State the function of Anallatic lens..

**Last Answer :** The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

**Description :** State two advantages of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** 1.it is most rapid method of surveying. 2. it is suitable for magnetic areas. 3.The map can be prepared easily ,and does not require greater skill. 4.Irregular objects can be represented ... is less costly. 7 The check lines detects the errors of measurement and plotting on field itself.

**Description :** State any four characteristics of contours with sketches.

**Last Answer :** Characteristics of contours - The characteristics of contours are described in following statements with the help of necessary sketches. 1. All the points on contour line represent same reduced level or equal ... 8. The summit of four ridge lines represents saddle as shown in sketch 8.

**Description :** What is meant by zero circle? State the advantages of digital planimeter over polar planimeter.

**Last Answer :** Zero circle:- When the tracing point is moved along a circle without rotation of the wheel i.e. when the wheel slides without any change in reading ,the circle is known as the zero circle or ... are required for area. 3) It gives more accurate reading 4) Less time required for measurement

**Description :** State the component parts of micro optic theodolite . How it is superior to a transit theodolite. Also write the situation where it is suitable.

**Last Answer :** Component parts of micro optic theodolite 1) Telescope 2) Magnification with standard eyepiece. 3) Level tube 4) Foot screws. 5) Tribatch & Trivet 6) Optical micrometer 7) Changing nob 8) ... is most suitable 3) This instrument is durable for harsh environments. 4) It is simple in use.

**Description :** State any four uses of digital theodolite.

**Last Answer :** The uses of digital theodolite are as follows. 1. To measure horizontal angle vey precisely up to one second. 2. To measure vertical angle accurately up to one second. 3. To set ... reduced levels of ridge and valley lines accurately. 5. To determine horizontal distance more precisely

**Description :** Define tacheometry. State the principle of tacheometry with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometry : It is the branch of angular surveying in which horizontal and vertical distances are determined from instrumental observations only, is known as tacheometry. Principle of tacheometry : ... to corresponding staff intercept remains constant as shown below in figure 3

**Description :** State any two situations under which tacheometry is preferred.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometry is preferred in following situations. 1. When horizontal distances can't be measured by chaining on highly uneven ground. 2. When vertical distances or reduced levels can't be measured ... is necessary to fill the details in topographic map and contour map with low degree of precision.

**Description :** State any four uses of transit theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Transit theodolite is useful for the following. 1. To measure the horizontal and vertical angles between survey stations. 2. To measure deflection angles between survey lines. 3. To measure horizontal ... tubular compass to it. 6. To prolong or extend the survey line up to required destination.

**Description :** State the possible error while using planimeter for finding area of an irregular figure.

**Last Answer :** Possible error while using planimeter for finding area of an irregular figure: 1) Instrumental Error i) Roller of planimeter which must rotate the axis freely and withot vibrations, if not, then ... vi) Error in setting of arm length. vii) Overlapping or repetition in tracing boundary.

**Description :** State the meaning of degree of curve and long chord.

**Last Answer :** Degree of curve : The angle subtended at the centre by a standard chord of 30 m length, is known as degree of curve. Long Chord : The straight line joining rear tangent point and forward tangent point is called as long chord of curve.

**Description :** State the principle of EDM with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of EDM:- The fig shows a survey line AB, the length D of which is to be measured using EDM equipment placed at ends A. Let a transmitter be placed at A to propagate electromagnetic waves towards B ... measured at A. This will require EDM timing devices with an accuracy of 1 10-9s.

**Description :** State four component parts of digital theodolite and state their purpose.

**Last Answer :** Component parts of digital theodolite and their purpose: 1. Control panel: to perform operations by giving commands to measure horizontal and vertical angles in left or right direction, to switch on ... fast and steady leveling. 7. Foot screws: for leveling of instrument by usual method.

**Description :** State the limitations of tacheometry.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometry is a surveying method that uses optical instruments, such as a theodolite or total station, to measure horizontal and vertical angles and distances. Some limitations of tacheometry include: ... and experience of the operator, and human error can lead to inaccuracies in the measurements.

**Description :** State the methods of contour interpolation and explain in brief any one.

**Last Answer :** Methods of interpolation:- i) By Arithmetic calculations ii) By Estimation iii) By Graphical method i) By Arithmetic Calculation: This is very tedious but accurate method and is used for small areas ... in fig.) may now be pricked through the position of the contour points on line PQ.

**Description :** State the application of remote sensing in various fields.

**Last Answer :** Applications of remote sensing:- Remote sensing is widely applicable in the following areas. 1) Applications of Remote sensing with respect to natural hazard. e. g In case of flood, ... resource like minerals and fossil fuels, geological data, location of minerals, mapping of mineral zones.

**Description :** State the two methods of setting out curves.

**Last Answer :** Methods of setting out curves :- 1) Method of offsets or ordinates from the long chord 2) By successive bisection of arcs 3) By offsets from tangents 4) By offsets from chords produced 5) Rankine’s method of tangential angles 6) Two Theodolite method

**Description :** State any two advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite :- 1) Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances accurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives ... data to computer. 6) Total station used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

**Description :** State the procedure of traversing by using total station.

**Last Answer :** The procedure is as follows. A) CENTERING THE TOTAL STATION: The instrument must be vertically above the survey station to ensure that horizontal angle observations are correct. The steps are as ... are plumbed over peg 1 and 3. Horizontal distances and angles are measured and recorded similarly.

**Description :** State the advantages and limitation of remote sensing.

**Last Answer :** Advantages of remote sensing: 1. Relatively cheap and rapid method of acquiring up-to-date information over a large geographical area. 2. It is the only practical way to obtain data from ... knowledge of phenomena you are sampling. 4. Thus one can say that data interpretation is difficult.

**Description :** State the uses of Global positioning system (GPS)

**Last Answer :** Uses of Global positioning system 1. To prepare contour maps. 2. To prepare longitudinal section of roads. 3. To prepare alignment of roads & bridges. 4. Used for navigation purpose. 5. For ... . 8. Used in Geographical information system. 9. Used in Military and Space 10. For Agriculture.

**Description :** State the classification of electronic distance meter.

**Last Answer :** Classification of electronic distance meter A) Classification based on the type of carrier wave used Instrument using visible light waves Instrument using invisible infra-red waves ... or transmitted wave. Reflecting type such as geodimeters Transmitting types such as tellurometer

**Description :** State components of one second micro-optic theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Component parts of micro optic theodolite 1) Telescope 2) Magnification with standard eyepiece. 3) Level tube 4) Foot screws. 5) Tribatch & Trivet 6) Optical micrometer 7) Microscope with ... -batch with foot screws 12) Plate level 13) Collimation slow motion screw 14 ) Horizontal clamp

**Description :** State the application of total station.

**Last Answer :** Application of Total Station:- 1) Measurement of slope distance. 2) Measurement of horizontal distance. 3) Measurement of vertical distance. 4) Measurement of horizontal angle. 5) ... ) Offset station measurement. 17) Co-ordinate area measurement. 18) Scaling measurement function.

**Description :** State any four uses of contour.

**Last Answer :** By studying a contour map : 1) The nature of the ground surface or topography of a country whether hilly, undulating or flat can be understood. 2) Possible routes of communication between ... drawn any direction from the contour map. 8) Quantities of earthwork can be determined approximately.

**Description :** State the practical applications of remote sensing in civil engineering project.

**Last Answer :** The practical applications of remote sensing in civil engineering project are : 1) Applications of Remote sensing with respect to natural hazard : In case of flood , earthquake ,volcano eruption and ... and satellite imagery used to ascertain the catchment area and command area of dam site.

**Description :** State Bowditch’s Rule.

**Last Answer :** Bowditch’s Rule states that the total error in latitude or departure is distributed in proportion to the lengths of the traverse.

**Description :** State any eight practical applications of E.D.M.

**Last Answer :** 1. For measurement of horizontal distance 2. For measurement of vertical distance 3. For measurement of sloping distance 4. Measurement of volume of stack. 5. Fixing alignment of railway / highway ... parking of ship in harbor. 8. Cross verification of already measured distance by chain / tape.

**Description :** Define tacheometer. State essential characteristics of tacheometer.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometer A tacheometer is essentially a transit theodolite having a stadia diaphragm. The diaphragm is equipped with two horizontal hairs called stadia hairs in addition to the regular cross hairs. ... The vision through the telescope should give a clear and bright image for a long distance.

**Description :** State any two application of each of GIS in land information and land environmental field.

**Last Answer :** Applications of GIS in Land information Following are the applications of GIS in land information. Easy creation and maintenance of data for land records. Land planning and land use. ... . Environmentally sensitive zone mapping. Forest cover, soil quality and hydrology coverage.

**Description :** State any four special feature of total station.

**Last Answer :** Following are the special feature of total station. High accuracy and long measuring range. 1) High accuracy : (2 mm + 2 ppm) 2) Long measuring range with mini prism is 0.9 km ... with less reading error. Superior water-resistant and dust proof. No worry about sudden bad weather.

**Description :** State different relationship between fundamental lines of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** When the instrument is in perfect adjustment, the following relations should exists: 1) The axis of the plate level must be perpendicular to the vertical axis. 2) The line of collimation ... collimation. 5) The vernier of vertical circle must read zero when the telescope is perfectly horizontal.

**Description :** State any four applications of contour map

**Last Answer :** Following are the applications of Contour map. 1. With the help of contour lines on contour map one can know the nature of ground. 2. For determination of most economical site for dams ... of cutting and embankment in given gradient. 6. For determining the indivisibility of two given points

**Description :** State methods of locating contours and explain any one.

**Last Answer :** Following are the methods of locating contours 1. Direct Method. 2. Indirect method. a) By Square / Block Contouring b) By Cross Section c) Tacheometric Contouring ... squares are plotted and reduced levels are written at their corners and the contours lines are then interpolated.