# State any four characteristics of contours with sketches.

State any four characteristics of contours with sketches.

Characteristics of contours – The characteristics of contours are described in following statements with the help of necessary sketches.

1. All the points on contour line represent same reduced level or equal elevation from reference level as shown in sketch 1.

2. Two contour lines always forms closed circuit within the boundary of drawing sheet as shown in sketch 2.

3. When the reduced levels goes on increasing at center of contour, then it represent hill whereas when the R.L’s goes on decreasing at center, then it represent valley as shown in sketch 3.

4. The contour lines for steep slope in closely spaced while for gentle sloped ground it is widely spaced as shown in sketch 4.

5. The contour lines may intersect each other for overhanging cliff as shown in sketch 5.

6. The contour lines may overlap each other at a point for vertical cliff as shown in sketch 6.

7. The continuous increase and decrease in reduced level represents ridge and valley lines as shown in sketch 7.

8. The summit of four ridge lines represents saddle as shown in sketch 8.

## Related questions

Description : State the methods of locating contours and explain direct method.

Last Answer : Methods of locating contours :- 1) Direct method 2) Indirect method i) By cross section ii) By Squares (Block Contouring) iii) Tachometric Method Direct method of contouring:- In ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

Description : State methods of locating contours and explain any one.

Last Answer : Following are the methods of locating contours 1. Direct Method. 2. Indirect method.  a) By Square / Block Contouring  b) By Cross Section  c) Tacheometric Contouring ... squares are plotted and reduced levels are written at their corners and the contours lines are then interpolated.

Description : In a contour map, if contours are crossing each other, what will be nature of topography? Draw the sketch to support your answer.

Last Answer : If contours are crossing or intersecting each other, then there is overhanging cliff as shown in figure 1 below.

Description : Describe the method of locating contours by square method.

Last Answer : 1) The method of square is indirect method of locating contours. 2) The method of squares is used where the area to be surveyed is small and not much undulating. 3) The area to be surveyed ... points are written on the respective corners. 6) The contours are then interpolated between them.

Description : Define the term interpolation of contours.

Last Answer : Interpolation of contours is the process of locating the required contours proportionately between the plotted reduced levels on sheet.

Description : Define tacheometer. State essential characteristics of tacheometer.

Last Answer : Tacheometer A tacheometer is essentially a transit theodolite having a stadia diaphragm. The diaphragm is equipped with two horizontal hairs called stadia hairs in addition to the regular cross hairs. ... The vision through the telescope should give a clear and bright image for a long distance.

Description : What is the difference between a theodolite and a tacheometer. Give any two characteristics of tacheometer.

Last Answer : Difference between theodolite and tacheometer. Sr.No Theodolite Tacheometer 1 It is most accurate instrument use for measurement of horizontal and vertical angle. ... 4. The vision through the telescope should give a clear and bright image for a long distance.

Description : State any four uses of digital theodolite.

Last Answer : The uses of digital theodolite are as follows. 1. To measure horizontal angle vey precisely up to one second. 2. To measure vertical angle accurately up to one second. 3. To set ... reduced levels of ridge and valley lines accurately. 5. To determine horizontal distance more precisely

Description : State any four uses of transit theodolite.

Last Answer : Transit theodolite is useful for the following. 1. To measure the horizontal and vertical angles between survey stations. 2. To measure deflection angles between survey lines. 3. To measure horizontal ... tubular compass to it. 6. To prolong or extend the survey line up to required destination.

Description : State four component parts of digital theodolite and state their purpose.

Last Answer : Component parts of digital theodolite and their purpose: 1. Control panel: to perform operations by giving commands to measure horizontal and vertical angles in left or right direction, to switch on ... fast and steady leveling. 7. Foot screws: for leveling of instrument by usual method.

Description : State any four uses of contour.

Last Answer : By studying a contour map : 1) The nature of the ground surface or topography of a country whether hilly, undulating or flat can be understood. 2) Possible routes of communication between ... drawn any direction from the contour map. 8) Quantities of earthwork can be determined approximately.

Description : State any four special feature of total station.

Last Answer : Following are the special feature of total station. High accuracy and long measuring range. 1) High accuracy : (2 mm + 2 ppm) 2) Long measuring range with mini prism is 0.9 km ... with less reading error. Superior water-resistant and dust proof. No worry about sudden bad weather.

Description : State any four applications of contour map

Last Answer : Following are the applications of Contour map. 1. With the help of contour lines on contour map one can know the nature of ground. 2. For determination of most economical site for dams ... of cutting and embankment in given gradient. 6. For determining the indivisibility of two given points

Description : State any four application of digital theodolite.

Last Answer : Application of digital theodolite:- 1. To measure horizontal angle very precisely up to one second. 2. To measure vertical angle accurately up to one second. 3. To set out control ... reduced levels of ridge and valley lines accurately. 5. To determine horizontal distance more precisely.

Description : Enlist any four component parts of digital level. State the functions of each.

Last Answer : Following are the component parts of Digital Level: 1. Display screen: To show the program going on. It has high resolution. 2.Key Pad- For operating the instrument. 3.Telescope- For ... - Internal focusing is provided, so to observe the object clearly, it is focused with focusing screw.

Description : State any four advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

Last Answer : Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite : 1)Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances aaccurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives digital ... computer. 6) Total station is used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

Description : What is GPS. State any four uses of GPS

Last Answer : GPS is satellite navigation system used to determine the ground position of an object. Uses of GPS: 1.To prepare contour map 2 It is widely used in navigation. 3. To locate different points of ... fix alignment , positions of piers etc. 6 It gives accrate timing to banks, mobile oprators etc.

Description : State four objective of tachometry.

Last Answer : 1. Preparation of contour maps 2. Used in hydrographic survey 3. Location of roads, railways , reservoir. 4. To enable horizontal and vertical distances to be computed from readings upon a stadia rod in difficult terrain. .

Description : List any four modern survey instruments.

Last Answer : Following are the modern survey instruments. 1. Digital Level 2. Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) 3. Micro-optic Theodolite 4. Total Station 5. Global Positioning System (GPS) Device 6. Aerial Camera 7. Remote Sensors

Description : Write four applications of GIS.

Last Answer : Applications of GIS:- 1) Map making 2) Site selection 3) Mineral Exploration 4) Land use planning and management 5) Environmental Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

Description : List any four essential characters of Tacheometer.

Last Answer : 1. The value of constant f/i = 100 Where, f = focal length i = length of image. 2. The telescope should be powerful, the magnification should be 20 to 30 times the diameter  3. The ... aperture of the objective should be 35 to 45mm in diameter in order to have a sufficiently bright image.

Description : State the function of Anallatic lens..

Last Answer : The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

Description : State two advantages of plane table surveying

Last Answer : 1.it is most rapid method of surveying. 2. it is suitable for magnetic areas. 3.The map can be prepared easily ,and does not require greater skill. 4.Irregular objects can be represented ... is less costly. 7 The check lines detects the errors of measurement and plotting on field itself.

Description : What is meant by zero circle? State the advantages of digital planimeter over polar planimeter.

Last Answer : Zero circle:- When the tracing point is moved along a circle without rotation of the wheel i.e. when the wheel slides without any change in reading ,the circle is known as the zero circle or ... are required for area. 3) It gives more accurate reading 4) Less time required for measurement

Description : State the component parts of micro optic theodolite . How it is superior to a transit theodolite. Also write the situation where it is suitable.

Last Answer : Component parts of micro optic theodolite 1) Telescope 2) Magnification with standard eyepiece. 3) Level tube 4) Foot screws. 5) Tribatch & Trivet 6) Optical micrometer 7) Changing nob 8) ... is most suitable 3) This instrument is durable for harsh environments. 4) It is simple in use.

Description : Define tacheometry. State the principle of tacheometry with sketch.

Last Answer : Tacheometry : It is the branch of angular surveying in which horizontal and vertical distances are determined from instrumental observations only, is known as tacheometry. Principle of tacheometry : ... to corresponding staff intercept remains constant as shown below in figure 3

Description : State any two situations under which tacheometry is preferred.

Last Answer : Tacheometry is preferred in following situations. 1. When horizontal distances can't be measured by chaining on highly uneven ground. 2. When vertical distances or reduced levels can't be measured ... is necessary to fill the details in topographic map and contour map with low degree of precision.

Description : State the possible error while using planimeter for finding area of an irregular figure.

Last Answer : Possible error while using planimeter for finding area of an irregular figure: 1) Instrumental Error i) Roller of planimeter which must rotate the axis freely and withot vibrations, if not, then ... vi) Error in setting of arm length. vii) Overlapping or repetition in tracing boundary.

Description : State the meaning of degree of curve and long chord.

Last Answer : Degree of curve : The angle subtended at the centre by a standard chord of 30 m length, is known as degree of curve. Long Chord : The straight line joining rear tangent point and forward tangent point is called as long chord of curve.

Description : State the principle of EDM with sketch.

Last Answer : Principle of EDM:- The fig shows a survey line AB, the length D of which is to be measured using EDM equipment placed at ends A. Let a transmitter be placed at A to propagate electromagnetic waves towards B ... measured at A. This will require EDM timing devices with an accuracy of 1 10-9s.

Description : State the limitations of tacheometry.

Last Answer : Tacheometry is a surveying method that uses optical instruments, such as a theodolite or total station, to measure horizontal and vertical angles and distances. Some limitations of tacheometry include: ... and experience of the operator, and human error can lead to inaccuracies in the measurements.

Description : State the methods of contour interpolation and explain in brief any one.

Last Answer : Methods of interpolation:- i) By Arithmetic calculations ii) By Estimation iii) By Graphical method i) By Arithmetic Calculation: This is very tedious but accurate method and is used for small areas ... in fig.) may now be pricked through the position of the contour points on line PQ.

Description : State the application of remote sensing in various fields.

Last Answer : Applications of remote sensing:-  Remote sensing is widely applicable in the following areas. 1) Applications of Remote sensing with respect to natural hazard. e. g In case of flood, ... resource like minerals and fossil fuels, geological data, location of minerals, mapping of mineral zones.

Description : State the two methods of setting out curves.

Last Answer : Methods of setting out curves :- 1) Method of offsets or ordinates from the long chord 2) By successive bisection of arcs 3) By offsets from tangents 4) By offsets from chords produced 5) Rankine’s method of tangential angles 6) Two Theodolite method

Description : State any two advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

Last Answer : Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite :- 1) Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances accurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives ... data to computer. 6) Total station used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

Description : State the procedure of traversing by using total station.

Last Answer : The procedure is as follows. A) CENTERING THE TOTAL STATION: The instrument must be vertically above the survey station to ensure that horizontal angle observations are correct. The steps are as ... are plumbed over peg 1 and 3. Horizontal distances and angles are measured and recorded similarly.

Description : State the advantages and limitation of remote sensing.

Last Answer : Advantages of remote sensing: 1. Relatively cheap and rapid method of acquiring up-to-date information over a large geographical area. 2. It is the only practical way to obtain data from ... knowledge of phenomena you are sampling. 4. Thus one can say that data interpretation is difficult.

Description : State the uses of Global positioning system (GPS)

Last Answer : Uses of Global positioning system 1. To prepare contour maps. 2. To prepare longitudinal section of roads. 3. To prepare alignment of roads & bridges. 4. Used for navigation purpose.  5. For ... . 8. Used in Geographical information system. 9. Used in Military and Space 10. For Agriculture.

Description : State the classification of electronic distance meter.

Last Answer : Classification of electronic distance meter A) Classification based on the type of carrier wave used Instrument using visible light waves Instrument using invisible infra-red waves ... or transmitted wave. Reflecting type such as geodimeters Transmitting types such as tellurometer

Description : State components of one second micro-optic theodolite.

Last Answer : Component parts of micro optic theodolite 1) Telescope 2) Magnification with standard eyepiece. 3) Level tube 4) Foot screws. 5) Tribatch & Trivet 6) Optical micrometer 7) Microscope with ... -batch with foot screws 12) Plate level 13) Collimation slow motion screw 14 ) Horizontal clamp

Description : State the application of total station.

Last Answer : Application of Total Station:- 1) Measurement of slope distance.  2) Measurement of horizontal distance. 3) Measurement of vertical distance.  4) Measurement of horizontal angle. 5) ... ) Offset station measurement.  17) Co-ordinate area measurement. 18) Scaling measurement function.

Description : State the errors eliminated by repetition method.

Last Answer : The errors eliminated by repetition method are : 1) Errors due to eccentricity of verniers and centers are eliminated by taking the both vernier readings and averaging them. 2) Errors due to ... bisection of object may compensate each other. 5) Errors due to improper levelling can be minimized

Description : State the practical applications of remote sensing in civil engineering project.

Last Answer : The practical applications of remote sensing in civil engineering project are : 1) Applications of Remote sensing with respect to natural hazard : In case of flood , earthquake ,volcano eruption and ... and satellite imagery used to ascertain the catchment area and command area of dam site.

Description : State the procedure of measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method.

Last Answer : The horizontal angle is measured very precisely using method of repetition as follows : 1) Set-up the theodolite over station O and level it properly. 2) Set the vernier A and vernier B at 0°0'0 ... repeat the same procedure. 9) The mean of both angles gives the horizontal angle AOB.

Description : State Bowditch’s Rule.

Last Answer : Bowditch’s Rule states that the total error in latitude or departure is distributed in proportion to the lengths of the traverse.

Description : State any eight practical applications of E.D.M.

Last Answer : 1. For measurement of horizontal distance 2. For measurement of vertical distance 3. For measurement of sloping distance 4. Measurement of volume of stack. 5. Fixing alignment of railway / highway ... parking of ship in harbor. 8. Cross verification of already measured distance by chain / tape.

Description : State any two application of each of GIS in land information and land environmental field.

Last Answer : Applications of GIS in Land information Following are the applications of GIS in land information. Easy creation and maintenance of data for land records. Land planning and land use. ... . Environmentally sensitive zone mapping. Forest cover, soil quality and hydrology coverage.

Description : State different relationship between fundamental lines of theodolite.

Last Answer : When the instrument is in perfect adjustment, the following relations should exists: 1) The axis of the plate level must be perpendicular to the vertical axis. 2) The line of collimation ... collimation. 5) The vernier of vertical circle must read zero when the telescope is perfectly horizontal.

Description : State the procedure for measuring a horizontal angle by method of repetition.

Last Answer : Procedure : 1. Set up the instrument over Q and level it accurately with the telescope in the normal position. 2. Set the vernier A to 360o. Loosen the lower clamp direct the telescope ... final reading by three. 14. By taking average of both the face, horizontal angle PQR is obtained.

Description : State the procedure for measurement of deflection angle by transit theodolite

Last Answer : Procedure: 1. Set up the theodolite at Q and level it accurately. 2. With both plate clamped, the vernier A reading 360o take back sight on P (i.e bisect ranging rod at ... angle is doubled and hence, one half of this average value gives the accurate value of deflection angle at Q.