asked
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

Following steps are followed for the set up of total station

1. Set up the tripod approximately over the station point.

2. Remove the plastic cap from tripod and make tripod nearly level by stretching tripod legs.

3. Now fix the total station on tripod and roughly leveled and centered the instrument and push each leg firmly into the ground.

4. Check the level and center it again . Adjust level by changing leg length.

5. Adjust the three screws of the tribrach to center the bubble of spirit level by using three foot screw.

6. Focusing of eyepiece.

7.Focusing of object glass.

8.Check the plate level from time to time during measurement .

1. Set up the tripod approximately over the station point.

2. Remove the plastic cap from tripod and make tripod nearly level by stretching tripod legs.

3. Now fix the total station on tripod and roughly leveled and centered the instrument and push each leg firmly into the ground.

4. Check the level and center it again . Adjust level by changing leg length.

5. Adjust the three screws of the tribrach to center the bubble of spirit level by using three foot screw.

6. Focusing of eyepiece.

7.Focusing of object glass.

8.Check the plate level from time to time during measurement .

answered
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

**Description :** Describe stepwise procedure to prepare the layout of a small building using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** Describe the procedure to determine co-ordinates of a station using GPS.

**Last Answer :** The following are some general GPS field survey procedures that should be performed at each station, observation, and/or session on a GPS survey. A. Receiver setup : GPS receiver shall be set up ... is to identify any problem that may exist which can be corrected before returning from the field.

**Description :** Apply knowledge of total station to prepare a contour map by describing its procedure.

**Last Answer :** Procedure of preparing contour map using total station1) Preliminary set up - Fix the total station over a station and level it. Press the power button to switch on the instrument. ... computer in the appropriate format. 8) Using appropriate application software, contour map will be prepared.

**Description :** State the procedure of traversing by using total station.

**Last Answer :** The procedure is as follows. A) CENTERING THE TOTAL STATION: The instrument must be vertically above the survey station to ensure that horizontal angle observations are correct. The steps are as ... are plumbed over peg 1 and 3. Horizontal distances and angles are measured and recorded similarly.

**Description :** Describe layout of small building by using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left corner ... setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** Describe the procedure to locate grade contour in field

**Last Answer :** Line joining the point along the same gradient is called contour gradient or grade contour. All the points on a contour have the same elevation. But all the points on a contour gradient do not ... on contour of RL 64. Similarly others points are established to obtain the grade contour on field.

**Description :** Give the main features of total station

**Last Answer :** 1. Easy access to any desired programme and mode of selection 2. Automatic atmospheric correction 3. Guide message arrangement 4. Higher distance resolution 5. Two speed tangent resolution 6. Tri axis compensation 7. East to read arrangement 8. Detachable tribranch facility

**Description :** Enlist the advantages and disadvantages of total station

**Last Answer :** Advantages of Total station - 1) Great speed of the work 2) Better accuracy in the measurements 3) Low power consumptions 4) Less time required for work. 5) Less man power required ... Total station - 1) Its high initial cost 2) There are no effective checks over its measurements.

**Description :** How the layout is done using total station?

**Last Answer :** Layout total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left corner. 2. Work out ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** State any two advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite :- 1) Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances accurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives ... data to computer. 6) Total station used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

**Description :** State the application of total station.

**Last Answer :** Application of Total Station:- 1) Measurement of slope distance. 2) Measurement of horizontal distance. 3) Measurement of vertical distance. 4) Measurement of horizontal angle. 5) ... ) Offset station measurement. 17) Co-ordinate area measurement. 18) Scaling measurement function.

**Description :** Enlist the uses of total station in surveying.

**Last Answer :** The uses of total station are : 1) To measure horizontal, vertical and slope distances. 2) To measure horizontal and vertical angles. 3) To measure the level difference between points. 4) To carry out ... 6) To prepare layout of building. 7) For speedy completion of any type of project work.

**Description :** State any four special feature of total station.

**Last Answer :** Following are the special feature of total station. High accuracy and long measuring range. 1) High accuracy : (2 mm + 2 ppm) 2) Long measuring range with mini prism is 0.9 km ... with less reading error. Superior water-resistant and dust proof. No worry about sudden bad weather.

**Description :** State any four advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite : 1)Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances aaccurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives digital ... computer. 6) Total station is used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

**Description :** Define grade contour. Give the procedure to locate grade contour on contour map with suitable sketch.

**Last Answer :** Grade Contour - It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** Write down the procedure for determination of tacheometric constants.

**Last Answer :** Method of determining tacheometric constants in the field1) A fairly level ground is selected. The tacheometer is set up at O and pegs are fixed at A, B & C, known distances apart. 2) The staff ... 5) By solving the equations in pairs, find tacheometric constants (f/i) and (f+d)

**Description :** Explain the procedure adopted with micro optic theodolite to find reduced level.

**Last Answer :** Procedure adopted with micro optic theodolite to find reduced level: 1) Take out micro optic theodolite from its box and fix it on the tripod over the required station. 2) Carryout the approximate leveling ... book. 10) RLs can be obtained by line of collimation method or Rise and fall method.

**Description :** State the procedure of measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method.

**Last Answer :** The horizontal angle is measured very precisely using method of repetition as follows : 1) Set-up the theodolite over station O and level it properly. 2) Set the vernier A and vernier B at 0°0'0 ... repeat the same procedure. 9) The mean of both angles gives the horizontal angle AOB.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of curve setting by method of offsets from long chord

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Divide the long chord into an even number of equal parts say 8,10,12 etc. 2. Set out the offset as calculated from the formula and obtain the required points on the ... ED, the offset for the right half of the curve will be the same as those on the left half side.

**Description :** Explain the procedure for measuring of vertical angle by using electronic theodolite

**Last Answer :** Digital Theodolite for measurement of vertical angle. 1)Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Accurate centering and aapproximate leveling by leg ... gives required vertical angle from zenith point or horizantal plane as per setting of the instrument.

**Description :** State the procedure for measuring a horizontal angle by method of repetition.

**Last Answer :** Procedure : 1. Set up the instrument over Q and level it accurately with the telescope in the normal position. 2. Set the vernier A to 360o. Loosen the lower clamp direct the telescope ... final reading by three. 14. By taking average of both the face, horizontal angle PQR is obtained.

**Description :** State the procedure for measurement of deflection angle by transit theodolite

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Set up the theodolite at Q and level it accurately. 2. With both plate clamped, the vernier A reading 360o take back sight on P (i.e bisect ranging rod at ... angle is doubled and hence, one half of this average value gives the accurate value of deflection angle at Q.

**Description :** Explain the procedure for measurement of vertical angle using digital theodolite

**Last Answer :** Digital Theodolite for measurement of vertical angle. 1)Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Accurate centering and aapproximate leveling by leg ... required vertical angle from zenith point or horizantal plane as per setting of the instrument.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of measurement of deflection angle.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. The theodolite is set up at B and centered and leveled properly . Vernier A is set at 0 0.and B at 1800 .The lower one is loosened. By turning the telescope the ranging rod at A ... The average angle of two faces is calulated. One half of this angle will be the deflection angle.

**Description :** State the procedure for computing the volume by prismodial formula.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. The total length of plane is divided into no of strips. 2. Calculate the areas at ends (A1&An) 3. Calculate area of intermediate strips A2,A3,A4 An So that,A1, A2, A3 .An are areas of ... 4A4+ .+2A(n-2)+4A(n-1)+An) 5 To use this formula it requires odd number of section.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of establishing grade contour on ground.

**Last Answer :** The grade contour along hill side can be established by following procedure. Suppose a grade contour of 1 in 30 is to be established on ground at an interval of 40 m. The points of grade contour ... joining all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately

**Description :** Describe any one method of orientation of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** Orientation by back sighting method: This method is accurate and is always preferred. Procedure: 1.Suppose A and B are two stations.The plane table is set up over A. The table is leveled by spirit level ... are perfect and needle is exactly at 0-0 , the orientation is said to be perfect.

**Description :** What are the different methods of contouring? Describe any one method along with sketch . Also write the situation where it is suitable

**Last Answer :** There are two methods of contouring:- 1. Direct Method 2. Indirect Method - a. By squares b. By cross section c. By tacheometric Direct method of contouring - In this ... joining these identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** Describe the use of digital theodolite for measurement of horizontal and vertical angle.

**Last Answer :** I) Procedure for measurement of horizontal angle with digital theodolite: 1) Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Approximate leveling by leg adjustment and ... and take the reading at B. 9) Difference of two angle gives required vertical angle AOB

**Description :** Describe the temporary adjustment of digital level.

**Last Answer :** Temporary adjustment of digital level:- 1) Setup stability:- The digital level should be fixed by rotating its screw head on top of tripod stand. Set tripod legs wide apart to increase the stability ... several times if required. 5) Focus the telescope properly to get clear image of cross hairs .

**Description :** Describe the method of locating contours by square method.

**Last Answer :** 1) The method of square is indirect method of locating contours. 2) The method of squares is used where the area to be surveyed is small and not much undulating. 3) The area to be surveyed ... points are written on the respective corners. 6) The contours are then interpolated between them.

**Description :** Describe the method of setting out simple curve by using the method of offset from long chord with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Given data: Direction of two straights, chainage of point of intersection, radius of curve. Procedure: 1) Set theodolite over B and measure deflection angle Ф 2) Calculate tangent length by ... equal to tangent length. 4) Divide long chord into even number of equal parts.

**Description :** Describe the temporary adjustment of theodolite

**Last Answer :** Temporary adjustment of theodolite:- The following operations should be done as temporary adjustments before taking readings on any theodolite. 1. Setting of theodolite on tripod stand - The theodolite ... .e. cross hairs and object) simultaneously focussing of telescope is said to be completed.

**Description :** Demonstrate the utility of Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Civil Engineering with appropriate examples.

**Last Answer :** Applications of Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering 1) Silting of storage reservoirs harbors etc. - Remote sensing technique that makes use of satellite imagery gives idea about the silting of ... Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

**Description :** Compare radiation and intersection methods of plane table surveying on any two parameters.

**Last Answer :** Radiation method Intersection method 1. It requires the plane table to occupy a single station. 1. This method requires setting the table up at minimum of two stations. ... for locating inaccessible points by the intersection of the rays drawn from two instruments stations.

**Description :** Explain the principle of techeometry with the help of a neat sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of tacheometry is based on principle of similar triangle in which corresponding sides & altitudes are proportional The ratio of distance of base from apex and length of base is always constant. ... S3=f/i=Constant Where f=focal length of objective and i =stadia intercept

**Description :** Explain the temporary adjustment of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Temporary Adjustments: The temporary adjustments have to be carried out at every setup of the instrument before taking observations with the theodolite A)Setting up: 1) Place the instrument ... . The parallax can be removed by the sharp focusing until the image appears sharp and clear.

**Description :** Name two software for GPS.

**Last Answer :** Softwares for GPS 1).GPSWOX 2) iGO 3) HERE 4)Navigon 5)Navman 6)EasyGPS 7) Caliper

**Description :** List two uses of EDM.

**Last Answer :** 1.It is useful for measuring the distances that are difficult to access. 2. It is useful in topographical survey. 3.Measurement of base line in triangulation survey can be carried out speedily and ... construction of gravity dams. 5.It is useful in fixing alignment of road, railways, canals etc.

**Description :** State the function of Anallatic lens..

**Last Answer :** The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

**Description :** Define Latitude and Departure.

**Last Answer :** Latitude : The projection of survey line parallel to meridian is called latitude. OR Projection of survey line parallel to N-S direction is called latitude. Departure: The projection of survey ... is called departure. OR Projection of survey line parallel to E-W direction is called departure.

**Description :** Define Swinging & Transiting

**Last Answer :** Swinging: It is the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane about its vertical axis. Transiting: It is the process of turning the telescope through 180° in a vertical plane about its horizontal axis

**Description :** State two advantages of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** 1.it is most rapid method of surveying. 2. it is suitable for magnetic areas. 3.The map can be prepared easily ,and does not require greater skill. 4.Irregular objects can be represented ... is less costly. 7 The check lines detects the errors of measurement and plotting on field itself.

**Description :** State any four characteristics of contours with sketches.

**Last Answer :** Characteristics of contours - The characteristics of contours are described in following statements with the help of necessary sketches. 1. All the points on contour line represent same reduced level or equal ... 8. The summit of four ridge lines represents saddle as shown in sketch 8.

**Description :** Explain direct method of contouring.

**Last Answer :** Direct method of contouring - In this method of contouring, the contours of required reduced level are plotted on ground itself. The procedure of direct method of contouring is as follows. ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** Give classification of curve and explain any one in detail.

**Last Answer :** Types of curve : The curve is classified broadly in two categories 1. Horizontal curve - When the points of curve are joined in horizontal plane then it is known as horizontal curve. 2. Vertical ... roadway or railway tracks. Vertical curves are of four types. a) Summit curve b) Valley curve

**Description :** Define transiting and swinging of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Transiting of theodolite - The vertical movement of telescope about its horizontal axis through 360 degree is known as Transiting of telescope of theodolite. Swinging of theodolite - The lateral or ... of theodolite about its vertical axis through 360 degree is known as Swinging of theodolite.

**Description :** What do you mean by zero circle in area measurement?

**Last Answer :** Zero Circle - It is the circle formed due to sliding of wheel of mechanical planimeter without changing the reading of circular measuring disc. It is unmeasured circular area on drawing sheet due to non-rotation of counter disc.

**Description :** Define following terms and give any two components of each : 1. GIS 2. GPS

**Last Answer :** GIS:- A geographic information system is a computer based tool that allows you to create, manipulate, analyze ,store & display information based on its location. Components:- 1) hardware 2) ... position &location speed and direction. Components:- 1) Antenna 2) Radio frequency

**Description :** What is meant by zero circle? State the advantages of digital planimeter over polar planimeter.

**Last Answer :** Zero circle:- When the tracing point is moved along a circle without rotation of the wheel i.e. when the wheel slides without any change in reading ,the circle is known as the zero circle or ... are required for area. 3) It gives more accurate reading 4) Less time required for measurement