asked
Mar 7, 2021
by
anonymous

Types of curve : The curve is classified broadly in two categories

1. Horizontal curve – When the points of curve are joined in horizontal plane then it is known as horizontal curve.

2. Vertical curve - When the points of curve are joined in vertical plane then it is known as horizontal curve.

Explanation :

1. Horizontal curve – These curves are provided at turn or corner points of roadway or railway tracks. Horizontal curves are of four types.

a) Simple circular curve

b) Compound curve

c) Reverse curve

d) Transitition curve

2. Vertical curve – These curves are provided at rise or fall points of roadway or railway tracks. Vertical curves are of four types.

a) Summit curve

b) Valley curve

1. Horizontal curve – When the points of curve are joined in horizontal plane then it is known as horizontal curve.

2. Vertical curve - When the points of curve are joined in vertical plane then it is known as horizontal curve.

Explanation :

1. Horizontal curve – These curves are provided at turn or corner points of roadway or railway tracks. Horizontal curves are of four types.

a) Simple circular curve

b) Compound curve

c) Reverse curve

d) Transitition curve

2. Vertical curve – These curves are provided at rise or fall points of roadway or railway tracks. Vertical curves are of four types.

a) Summit curve

b) Valley curve

answered
Mar 7, 2021
by
anonymous

**Description :** Give the classification of curve and Define 1.Transition curve 2. Reverse curve

**Last Answer :** Classification of curve is as follows1) Horizontal curve a) Simple curve b) Compound curve c) Reverse curve d) Transition curve e) Lemniscate curve 2) Vertical curve a) Summit curve ... their centers lie on opposites sides of the curve . They have one common tangent.

**Description :** Explain the setting of curve by Rankine’s deflection angle method.

**Last Answer :** Rankine's deflection angle Method:- 1) Set up theodolite at first tangent point, T1 and level it carefully, set the vernier A to 3600 2) bisect the ranging rod at the point of ... . The angle thus obtained will be set on the vernier of the theodolite for setting out the curve.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of curve setting by method of offsets from long chord

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Divide the long chord into an even number of equal parts say 8,10,12 etc. 2. Set out the offset as calculated from the formula and obtain the required points on the ... ED, the offset for the right half of the curve will be the same as those on the left half side.

**Description :** State the classification of electronic distance meter.

**Last Answer :** Classification of electronic distance meter A) Classification based on the type of carrier wave used Instrument using visible light waves Instrument using invisible infra-red waves ... or transmitted wave. Reflecting type such as geodimeters Transmitting types such as tellurometer

**Description :** State the meaning of degree of curve and long chord.

**Last Answer :** Degree of curve : The angle subtended at the centre by a standard chord of 30 m length, is known as degree of curve. Long Chord : The straight line joining rear tangent point and forward tangent point is called as long chord of curve.

**Description :** Draw a neat sketch of simple curve showing all elements.

**Last Answer :** Simple curve

**Description :** What is the degree of curve? Derive the relationship between radius and degree of curve.

**Last Answer :** Degree of curve The degree of the curve is the angle subtended at the center by a standard chord of 30 m length. Relationship between radius and degree of curve. Referring Fig Let R = the radius of the curve in m. D ... OM = R, PM = ½ MN = 15 m. Then sin D/2 = PM/OM = 15/R

**Description :** sketch of simple circular curve and show notation there on

**Last Answer :** Let the distance between P and Q be D' which is to be measured. A wave transmitted from the transmitter at station P' with certain phase angle. There is a ... phase angle. For finding the distance, the phase difference between transmitted wave is measured and converted into distance.

**Description :** Draw neat sketch of simple circular curve and show notation there on.

**Last Answer :** Sketch of simple circular curve and show notation there on :

**Description :** Define compound curve and reverse curve

**Last Answer :** Compound Curve: A compound curve consists of two arc of different radius curving in the same direction. The centers of the two arc situated on the same side of the curve. Reverse Curve: A ... opposite direction with a common tangent. The two centers are on the opposite sides of a common tangent.

**Description :** Derive the relationship between the radius and degree of curve.

**Last Answer :** Relationship between radius and degree of curve. Referring Fig Let R = the radius of the curve in m. D = the degree of cuve.— MN = the chord 30 m long. P = Mid point of chord MN In triangle OMP, OM = R, PM = ½ MN = 15 m. Then sin D/2 = PM/OM = 15/R

**Description :** Describe the method of setting out simple curve by using the method of offset from long chord with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Given data: Direction of two straights, chainage of point of intersection, radius of curve. Procedure: 1) Set theodolite over B and measure deflection angle Ф 2) Calculate tangent length by ... equal to tangent length. 4) Divide long chord into even number of equal parts.

**Description :** Define degree of curve.

**Last Answer :** The angle subtended at the centre of the circle by a chord of standard length of 30m is known as degree of curve.

**Description :** Give the main features of total station

**Last Answer :** 1. Easy access to any desired programme and mode of selection 2. Automatic atmospheric correction 3. Guide message arrangement 4. Higher distance resolution 5. Two speed tangent resolution 6. Tri axis compensation 7. East to read arrangement 8. Detachable tribranch facility

**Description :** Define following terms and give any two components of each : 1. GIS 2. GPS

**Last Answer :** GIS:- A geographic information system is a computer based tool that allows you to create, manipulate, analyze ,store & display information based on its location. Components:- 1) hardware 2) ... position &location speed and direction. Components:- 1) Antenna 2) Radio frequency

**Description :** Define grade contour. Give the procedure to locate grade contour on contour map with suitable sketch.

**Last Answer :** Grade Contour - It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** Give the simplest method of finding the area of zero of a zero circle from manufacturers table.

**Last Answer :** The area of zero circle can be find out simply by using following formula. A = M x C Where, A = Area of zero circle M = Multiplier or multiplying constant provided in manufacturers table C = Constant of planimeter provide in manufacturers table

**Description :** Give the desired relationship between fundamental axes of transit theodolite.

**Last Answer :** The desired relationships between fundamental axes of transit theodolite when in perfect adjustment are : 1) The axis of plate level must be perpendicular to the vertical axis. 2) The line of ... If the instrument has fixed vernier for vertical circle, it must read zero in levelled position.

**Description :** What is the difference between a theodolite and a tacheometer. Give any two characteristics of tacheometer.

**Last Answer :** Difference between theodolite and tacheometer. Sr.No Theodolite Tacheometer 1 It is most accurate instrument use for measurement of horizontal and vertical angle. ... 4. The vision through the telescope should give a clear and bright image for a long distance.

**Description :** Give the application of remote sensing.

**Last Answer :** Applications of remote sensing:- Remote sensing is widely applicable in the following areas. 1) Applications of Remote sensing with respect to natural hazard. e. g In case of flood,earthquake ... like minerals and fossil fuels, geological data, location of minerals, mapping of mineral zones.

**Description :** Explain the principle of techeometry with the help of a neat sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of tacheometry is based on principle of similar triangle in which corresponding sides & altitudes are proportional The ratio of distance of base from apex and length of base is always constant. ... S3=f/i=Constant Where f=focal length of objective and i =stadia intercept

**Description :** Explain the temporary adjustment of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Temporary Adjustments: The temporary adjustments have to be carried out at every setup of the instrument before taking observations with the theodolite A)Setting up: 1) Place the instrument ... . The parallax can be removed by the sharp focusing until the image appears sharp and clear.

**Description :** Explain direct method of contouring.

**Last Answer :** Direct method of contouring - In this method of contouring, the contours of required reduced level are plotted on ground itself. The procedure of direct method of contouring is as follows. ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** Explain the procedure adopted with micro optic theodolite to find reduced level.

**Last Answer :** Procedure adopted with micro optic theodolite to find reduced level: 1) Take out micro optic theodolite from its box and fix it on the tripod over the required station. 2) Carryout the approximate leveling ... book. 10) RLs can be obtained by line of collimation method or Rise and fall method.

**Description :** State the methods of contour interpolation and explain in brief any one.

**Last Answer :** Methods of interpolation:- i) By Arithmetic calculations ii) By Estimation iii) By Graphical method i) By Arithmetic Calculation: This is very tedious but accurate method and is used for small areas ... in fig.) may now be pricked through the position of the contour points on line PQ.

**Description :** State the methods of locating contours and explain direct method.

**Last Answer :** Methods of locating contours :- 1) Direct method 2) Indirect method i) By cross section ii) By Squares (Block Contouring) iii) Tachometric Method Direct method of contouring:- In ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** Explain principle of tachometry survey.

**Last Answer :** Principle of tachometry is based on principle of similar triangle in which corresponding sides & altitudes are proportional. The ratio of distance of base from apex and length of base is always Constant. ... f/i= Multiplying constant. f= Focal length of objective. i= Stadia Intercept.

**Description :** Explain temporary adjustment required for theodolite.

**Last Answer :** The temporary adjustments have to be carried out at every set-up of instrument before taking observations with the theodolite. 1) Setting up the theodolite: Setting up of the theodolite includes: a) ... moves up and down. This is affect of parallax. This can be removed with sharp focusing.

**Description :** Explain application of remote sensing in civil engineering.

**Last Answer :** Applications of remote sensing - Remote sensing is widely applicable in the following areas. 1. Resource exploration - The underground resources like fossil fuels, mineral and oil deposits can be explored ... features like hill, valley, trees, houses etc. can be determined in highly steep slopes.

**Description :** Explain the procedure for measuring of vertical angle by using electronic theodolite

**Last Answer :** Digital Theodolite for measurement of vertical angle. 1)Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Accurate centering and aapproximate leveling by leg ... gives required vertical angle from zenith point or horizantal plane as per setting of the instrument.

**Description :** Explain construction and use of ‘one second micro optic theodolite’.

**Last Answer :** Construction: Micro optical theodolite have optical system build during manufacturing. This optical system faceplates reading of both horizontal and vertical angle precisely. The least count of this ... towers carrying electric cable can be precisely done. For locating alignment of tunnel.

**Description :** Explain the temporary adjustment of transit theodolite

**Last Answer :** Temporary adjustment of transit theodolite consists of following steps. 1. Setting up theodolite over a station 2. Levelling up 3. Focusing of eyepiece. 4. Focusing of object glass. ... , direct the telescope towards object and turn the focusing screw until the appears clear and sharp.

**Description :** State methods of locating contours and explain any one.

**Last Answer :** Following are the methods of locating contours 1. Direct Method. 2. Indirect method. a) By Square / Block Contouring b) By Cross Section c) Tacheometric Contouring ... squares are plotted and reduced levels are written at their corners and the contours lines are then interpolated.

**Description :** Explain the procedure for measurement of vertical angle using digital theodolite

**Last Answer :** Digital Theodolite for measurement of vertical angle. 1)Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Accurate centering and aapproximate leveling by leg ... required vertical angle from zenith point or horizantal plane as per setting of the instrument.

**Description :** Explain the working principal of EDM with a neat sketch.

**Last Answer :** Let the distance between P and Q be D' which is to be measured. A wave is transmitted from the transmitter at station P' with certain phase angle. . There ... finding the distance, the phase difference between transmitted wave and reflected wave is measured and converted into distance.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of measurement of deflection angle.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. The theodolite is set up at B and centered and leveled properly . Vernier A is set at 0 0.and B at 1800 .The lower one is loosened. By turning the telescope the ranging rod at A ... The average angle of two faces is calulated. One half of this angle will be the deflection angle.

**Description :** State Direct & indirect method of contouring.Explain tacheometric method.

**Last Answer :** Method of contouring are: 1.Direct method 2 Indirect methods which include a)by cross section b)by squares c) tachometric contouring method. Tachometric contouring method. 1.This method ... calculated by tacheometry formulae. 4 The survey is plotted and then contour lines are interpolated.

**Description :** Explain the method of repetition to measure horizontal angle using transit theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1 Suppose the angle AOB is to be measured by the repetition process. The theodolite is set over O. The instrument is centered and levelled properly.Vernier A is set at 00 and vernier is at 1800 ... 8 The mean of the two angles obtained from two faces gives the actual angle AOB.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of establishing grade contour on ground.

**Last Answer :** The grade contour along hill side can be established by following procedure. Suppose a grade contour of 1 in 30 is to be established on ground at an interval of 40 m. The points of grade contour ... joining all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately

**Description :** Demonstrate the utility of Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Civil Engineering with appropriate examples.

**Last Answer :** Applications of Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering 1) Silting of storage reservoirs harbors etc. - Remote sensing technique that makes use of satellite imagery gives idea about the silting of ... Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

**Description :** Apply knowledge of total station to prepare a contour map by describing its procedure.

**Last Answer :** Procedure of preparing contour map using total station1) Preliminary set up - Fix the total station over a station and level it. Press the power button to switch on the instrument. ... computer in the appropriate format. 8) Using appropriate application software, contour map will be prepared.

**Description :** Describe stepwise procedure to prepare the layout of a small building using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** Compare radiation and intersection methods of plane table surveying on any two parameters.

**Last Answer :** Radiation method Intersection method 1. It requires the plane table to occupy a single station. 1. This method requires setting the table up at minimum of two stations. ... for locating inaccessible points by the intersection of the rays drawn from two instruments stations.

**Description :** Describe the procedure to determine co-ordinates of a station using GPS.

**Last Answer :** The following are some general GPS field survey procedures that should be performed at each station, observation, and/or session on a GPS survey. A. Receiver setup : GPS receiver shall be set up ... is to identify any problem that may exist which can be corrected before returning from the field.

**Description :** Describe any one method of orientation of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** Orientation by back sighting method: This method is accurate and is always preferred. Procedure: 1.Suppose A and B are two stations.The plane table is set up over A. The table is leveled by spirit level ... are perfect and needle is exactly at 0-0 , the orientation is said to be perfect.

**Description :** Name two software for GPS.

**Last Answer :** Softwares for GPS 1).GPSWOX 2) iGO 3) HERE 4)Navigon 5)Navman 6)EasyGPS 7) Caliper

**Description :** List two uses of EDM.

**Last Answer :** 1.It is useful for measuring the distances that are difficult to access. 2. It is useful in topographical survey. 3.Measurement of base line in triangulation survey can be carried out speedily and ... construction of gravity dams. 5.It is useful in fixing alignment of road, railways, canals etc.

**Description :** State the function of Anallatic lens..

**Last Answer :** The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

**Description :** Define Latitude and Departure.

**Last Answer :** Latitude : The projection of survey line parallel to meridian is called latitude. OR Projection of survey line parallel to N-S direction is called latitude. Departure: The projection of survey ... is called departure. OR Projection of survey line parallel to E-W direction is called departure.

**Description :** Define Swinging & Transiting

**Last Answer :** Swinging: It is the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane about its vertical axis. Transiting: It is the process of turning the telescope through 180° in a vertical plane about its horizontal axis