asked
Apr 10, 2021
by
anonymous

Procedure of preparing contour map using total station1) Preliminary set up –

Fix the total station over a station and level it.

Press the power button to switch on the instrument. level instrument using electronic vial. Set bisection target as prism.

Select MODE B -------> S function------->file management------>create (enter a name)------->accept.

Then press ESC to go to the starting page.

2) Then go to S function ------> measure-----> rectangular co-ordinate---->station ---

>press enter. Here enter the point number or name, X,Y,Z co-ordnates, instrument height and prism code. Then press accept (Fs)

3) Adopt Cross section method for establishing the major grid around the study area.

Project suitably spaced cross sections on either side of the centre line of the area.

Choose several points at reasonable distances on either side.

4) Orient the instrument to the magnetic north, or any other referance direction. Then set zero by double clicking on 0 set (F3).

5) Keep the reflecting prism on the first point and turn the total station to the prism, focus it and bisect it exactly using horizontal and vertical clamps. Then select MEAS and the display panel will show the point specification. Now select edit and re-enter the point number or name point code and enter the prism height that we have set.

6) Then press MEAS/SAVE (F3) so that the measurement to the first point will automatically be saved and the display panel will show the second point. Then turn the total station to second point and do the same procedure. Repeat the steps to the rest of the stations and get all point details.

7) Transfer the data stored in file to computer in the appropriate format.

8) Using appropriate application software, contour map will be prepared.

Fix the total station over a station and level it.

Press the power button to switch on the instrument. level instrument using electronic vial. Set bisection target as prism.

Select MODE B -------> S function------->file management------>create (enter a name)------->accept.

Then press ESC to go to the starting page.

2) Then go to S function ------> measure-----> rectangular co-ordinate---->station ---

>press enter. Here enter the point number or name, X,Y,Z co-ordnates, instrument height and prism code. Then press accept (Fs)

3) Adopt Cross section method for establishing the major grid around the study area.

Project suitably spaced cross sections on either side of the centre line of the area.

Choose several points at reasonable distances on either side.

4) Orient the instrument to the magnetic north, or any other referance direction. Then set zero by double clicking on 0 set (F3).

5) Keep the reflecting prism on the first point and turn the total station to the prism, focus it and bisect it exactly using horizontal and vertical clamps. Then select MEAS and the display panel will show the point specification. Now select edit and re-enter the point number or name point code and enter the prism height that we have set.

6) Then press MEAS/SAVE (F3) so that the measurement to the first point will automatically be saved and the display panel will show the second point. Then turn the total station to second point and do the same procedure. Repeat the steps to the rest of the stations and get all point details.

7) Transfer the data stored in file to computer in the appropriate format.

8) Using appropriate application software, contour map will be prepared.

answered
Apr 10, 2021
by
anonymous

**Description :** Define grade contour. Give the procedure to locate grade contour on contour map with suitable sketch.

**Last Answer :** Grade Contour - It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** Describe stepwise procedure to prepare the layout of a small building using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** Describe the procedure to locate grade contour in field

**Last Answer :** Line joining the point along the same gradient is called contour gradient or grade contour. All the points on a contour have the same elevation. But all the points on a contour gradient do not ... on contour of RL 64. Similarly others points are established to obtain the grade contour on field.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of establishing grade contour on ground.

**Last Answer :** The grade contour along hill side can be established by following procedure. Suppose a grade contour of 1 in 30 is to be established on ground at an interval of 40 m. The points of grade contour ... joining all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately

**Description :** What is a contour map? Write any two objects of preparing contour map.

**Last Answer :** Contour map : It the map showing nature of topography of any particular field with the help of contour lines indicating reduced levels of ground. Objects of preparing contour map : Contour map ... . 4. To excavate the canal and contour cut trenches along hillside under watershed management works.

**Description :** In a contour map, if contours are crossing each other, what will be nature of topography? Draw the sketch to support your answer.

**Last Answer :** If contours are crossing or intersecting each other, then there is overhanging cliff as shown in figure 1 below.

**Description :** How will you locate grade contour on contour map.

**Last Answer :** Procedure for establishing grade contour on ground : The grade contour along hill side can be established by following procedure. 1. Suppose a grade contour of 1 in 30 is to be established on ground. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** State any four applications of contour map

**Last Answer :** Following are the applications of Contour map. 1. With the help of contour lines on contour map one can know the nature of ground. 2. For determination of most economical site for dams ... of cutting and embankment in given gradient. 6. For determining the indivisibility of two given points

**Description :** State the uses of contour map.

**Last Answer :** Following are the uses of contour maps. 1.The nature of the ground surface or topography of a country weather hilly, undulating ,or flat can be understood. 2. For determining the ... volume of cutting and embankment in given gradient. 6.For determining intervisibility of given points.

**Description :** State the procedure of traversing by using total station.

**Last Answer :** The procedure is as follows. A) CENTERING THE TOTAL STATION: The instrument must be vertically above the survey station to ensure that horizontal angle observations are correct. The steps are as ... are plumbed over peg 1 and 3. Horizontal distances and angles are measured and recorded similarly.

**Description :** Describe the procedure for setup of total station.

**Last Answer :** Following steps are followed for the set up of total station 1. Set up the tripod approximately over the station point. 2. Remove the plastic cap from tripod and make tripod nearly level by stretching ... 7.Focusing of object glass. 8.Check the plate level from time to time during measurement .

**Description :** Describe the procedure to determine co-ordinates of a station using GPS.

**Last Answer :** The following are some general GPS field survey procedures that should be performed at each station, observation, and/or session on a GPS survey. A. Receiver setup : GPS receiver shall be set up ... is to identify any problem that may exist which can be corrected before returning from the field.

**Description :** Define interpolation of contour and state its methods.

**Last Answer :** The process of spacing the contours proportionately between the ground points is known as “Interpolation of Contours”. The contours may be interpolated by: 1. Estimation 2. Arithmetical calculations. 3. Graphical method.

**Description :** State the methods of contour interpolation and explain in brief any one.

**Last Answer :** Methods of interpolation:- i) By Arithmetic calculations ii) By Estimation iii) By Graphical method i) By Arithmetic Calculation: This is very tedious but accurate method and is used for small areas ... in fig.) may now be pricked through the position of the contour points on line PQ.

**Description :** Define Grade contour.

**Last Answer :** Grade contour :- It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is called as grade contour.

**Description :** Define 1) Contour 2) Contour Interval

**Last Answer :** Contour :- It is an imaginary line on the ground joining points of equal elevation or RLs. Contour Interval :- The vertical distance between any two consecutive contours is known as a contour interval

**Description :** What is meant by grade contour? How it will be located in field?

**Last Answer :** It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. Procedure for ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** State any four uses of contour.

**Last Answer :** By studying a contour map : 1) The nature of the ground surface or topography of a country whether hilly, undulating or flat can be understood. 2) Possible routes of communication between ... drawn any direction from the contour map. 8) Quantities of earthwork can be determined approximately.

**Description :** Differentiate between contour interval and horizontal equivalent.

**Last Answer :** Contour Interval - The vertical distance between two successive contours or contour lines, is known as Contour Interval. Horizontal Equivalent - The horizontal distance between two successive contours or contour lines, is known as Horizontal Equivalent.

**Description :** Draw neat sketch of contour for the following i)Hill ii) Valley iii)Gentle Slope iv) Ridge Line

**Last Answer :** i)Hill ii) Valley iii)Gentle Slope iv) Ridge Line

**Description :** Give the main features of total station

**Last Answer :** 1. Easy access to any desired programme and mode of selection 2. Automatic atmospheric correction 3. Guide message arrangement 4. Higher distance resolution 5. Two speed tangent resolution 6. Tri axis compensation 7. East to read arrangement 8. Detachable tribranch facility

**Description :** Enlist the advantages and disadvantages of total station

**Last Answer :** Advantages of Total station - 1) Great speed of the work 2) Better accuracy in the measurements 3) Low power consumptions 4) Less time required for work. 5) Less man power required ... Total station - 1) Its high initial cost 2) There are no effective checks over its measurements.

**Description :** How the layout is done using total station?

**Last Answer :** Layout total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left corner. 2. Work out ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** State any two advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite :- 1) Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances accurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives ... data to computer. 6) Total station used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

**Description :** State the application of total station.

**Last Answer :** Application of Total Station:- 1) Measurement of slope distance. 2) Measurement of horizontal distance. 3) Measurement of vertical distance. 4) Measurement of horizontal angle. 5) ... ) Offset station measurement. 17) Co-ordinate area measurement. 18) Scaling measurement function.

**Description :** Enlist the uses of total station in surveying.

**Last Answer :** The uses of total station are : 1) To measure horizontal, vertical and slope distances. 2) To measure horizontal and vertical angles. 3) To measure the level difference between points. 4) To carry out ... 6) To prepare layout of building. 7) For speedy completion of any type of project work.

**Description :** State any four special feature of total station.

**Last Answer :** Following are the special feature of total station. High accuracy and long measuring range. 1) High accuracy : (2 mm + 2 ppm) 2) Long measuring range with mini prism is 0.9 km ... with less reading error. Superior water-resistant and dust proof. No worry about sudden bad weather.

**Description :** Describe layout of small building by using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left corner ... setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** State any four advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Advantages of total station over dumpy level and theodolite : 1)Total station gives digital measurements of sloping, horizontal and vertical distances aaccurately and precisely. 2) Total station gives digital ... computer. 6) Total station is used to prepare the map and drawings using softwares.

**Description :** Write down the procedure for determination of tacheometric constants.

**Last Answer :** Method of determining tacheometric constants in the field1) A fairly level ground is selected. The tacheometer is set up at O and pegs are fixed at A, B & C, known distances apart. 2) The staff ... 5) By solving the equations in pairs, find tacheometric constants (f/i) and (f+d)

**Description :** Explain the procedure adopted with micro optic theodolite to find reduced level.

**Last Answer :** Procedure adopted with micro optic theodolite to find reduced level: 1) Take out micro optic theodolite from its box and fix it on the tripod over the required station. 2) Carryout the approximate leveling ... book. 10) RLs can be obtained by line of collimation method or Rise and fall method.

**Description :** State the procedure of measurement of horizontal angle by repetition method.

**Last Answer :** The horizontal angle is measured very precisely using method of repetition as follows : 1) Set-up the theodolite over station O and level it properly. 2) Set the vernier A and vernier B at 0°0'0 ... repeat the same procedure. 9) The mean of both angles gives the horizontal angle AOB.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of curve setting by method of offsets from long chord

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Divide the long chord into an even number of equal parts say 8,10,12 etc. 2. Set out the offset as calculated from the formula and obtain the required points on the ... ED, the offset for the right half of the curve will be the same as those on the left half side.

**Description :** Explain the procedure for measuring of vertical angle by using electronic theodolite

**Last Answer :** Digital Theodolite for measurement of vertical angle. 1)Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Accurate centering and aapproximate leveling by leg ... gives required vertical angle from zenith point or horizantal plane as per setting of the instrument.

**Description :** State the procedure for measuring a horizontal angle by method of repetition.

**Last Answer :** Procedure : 1. Set up the instrument over Q and level it accurately with the telescope in the normal position. 2. Set the vernier A to 360o. Loosen the lower clamp direct the telescope ... final reading by three. 14. By taking average of both the face, horizontal angle PQR is obtained.

**Description :** State the procedure for measurement of deflection angle by transit theodolite

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Set up the theodolite at Q and level it accurately. 2. With both plate clamped, the vernier A reading 360o take back sight on P (i.e bisect ranging rod at ... angle is doubled and hence, one half of this average value gives the accurate value of deflection angle at Q.

**Description :** Explain the procedure for measurement of vertical angle using digital theodolite

**Last Answer :** Digital Theodolite for measurement of vertical angle. 1)Taking out digital theodolite for box and fix it on tripod over required station. 2) Accurate centering and aapproximate leveling by leg ... required vertical angle from zenith point or horizantal plane as per setting of the instrument.

**Description :** Explain the procedure of measurement of deflection angle.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. The theodolite is set up at B and centered and leveled properly . Vernier A is set at 0 0.and B at 1800 .The lower one is loosened. By turning the telescope the ranging rod at A ... The average angle of two faces is calulated. One half of this angle will be the deflection angle.

**Description :** State the procedure for computing the volume by prismodial formula.

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. The total length of plane is divided into no of strips. 2. Calculate the areas at ends (A1&An) 3. Calculate area of intermediate strips A2,A3,A4 An So that,A1, A2, A3 .An are areas of ... 4A4+ .+2A(n-2)+4A(n-1)+An) 5 To use this formula it requires odd number of section.

**Description :** Explain the stepwise procedure of estimating volume of reservoir from any contour map.

**Last Answer :** Reservoirs are made for water supply and for power or irrigation projects. A contour map is very useful to study the possible location of a dam and the volume of water to be confined. All ... reservoir can be estimated by the application of either the trapezoidal or the prismoidal formula.

**Description :** Demonstrate the utility of Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Civil Engineering with appropriate examples.

**Last Answer :** Applications of Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering 1) Silting of storage reservoirs harbors etc. - Remote sensing technique that makes use of satellite imagery gives idea about the silting of ... Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

**Description :** Compare radiation and intersection methods of plane table surveying on any two parameters.

**Last Answer :** Radiation method Intersection method 1. It requires the plane table to occupy a single station. 1. This method requires setting the table up at minimum of two stations. ... for locating inaccessible points by the intersection of the rays drawn from two instruments stations.

**Description :** Explain the principle of techeometry with the help of a neat sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of tacheometry is based on principle of similar triangle in which corresponding sides & altitudes are proportional The ratio of distance of base from apex and length of base is always constant. ... S3=f/i=Constant Where f=focal length of objective and i =stadia intercept

**Description :** Explain the temporary adjustment of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Temporary Adjustments: The temporary adjustments have to be carried out at every setup of the instrument before taking observations with the theodolite A)Setting up: 1) Place the instrument ... . The parallax can be removed by the sharp focusing until the image appears sharp and clear.

**Description :** Describe any one method of orientation of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** Orientation by back sighting method: This method is accurate and is always preferred. Procedure: 1.Suppose A and B are two stations.The plane table is set up over A. The table is leveled by spirit level ... are perfect and needle is exactly at 0-0 , the orientation is said to be perfect.

**Description :** Name two software for GPS.

**Last Answer :** Softwares for GPS 1).GPSWOX 2) iGO 3) HERE 4)Navigon 5)Navman 6)EasyGPS 7) Caliper

**Description :** List two uses of EDM.

**Last Answer :** 1.It is useful for measuring the distances that are difficult to access. 2. It is useful in topographical survey. 3.Measurement of base line in triangulation survey can be carried out speedily and ... construction of gravity dams. 5.It is useful in fixing alignment of road, railways, canals etc.

**Description :** State the function of Anallatic lens..

**Last Answer :** The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

**Description :** Define Latitude and Departure.

**Last Answer :** Latitude : The projection of survey line parallel to meridian is called latitude. OR Projection of survey line parallel to N-S direction is called latitude. Departure: The projection of survey ... is called departure. OR Projection of survey line parallel to E-W direction is called departure.

**Description :** Define Swinging & Transiting

**Last Answer :** Swinging: It is the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane about its vertical axis. Transiting: It is the process of turning the telescope through 180° in a vertical plane about its horizontal axis