asked
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

Compound Curve: A compound curve consists of two arc of different radius curving in the same direction. The centers of the two arc situated on the same side of the curve.

Reverse Curve: A reverse curve consists of two arcs of equal or different radius curving in opposite direction with a common tangent. The two centers are on the opposite sides of a common tangent.

Reverse Curve: A reverse curve consists of two arcs of equal or different radius curving in opposite direction with a common tangent. The two centers are on the opposite sides of a common tangent.

answered
Mar 6, 2021
by
anonymous

**Description :** Give the classification of curve and Define 1.Transition curve 2. Reverse curve

**Last Answer :** Classification of curve is as follows1) Horizontal curve a) Simple curve b) Compound curve c) Reverse curve d) Transition curve e) Lemniscate curve 2) Vertical curve a) Summit curve ... their centers lie on opposites sides of the curve . They have one common tangent.

**Description :** Define degree of curve.

**Last Answer :** The angle subtended at the centre of the circle by a chord of standard length of 30m is known as degree of curve.

**Description :** Give classification of curve and explain any one in detail.

**Last Answer :** Types of curve : The curve is classified broadly in two categories 1. Horizontal curve - When the points of curve are joined in horizontal plane then it is known as horizontal curve. 2. Vertical ... roadway or railway tracks. Vertical curves are of four types. a) Summit curve b) Valley curve

**Description :** State the meaning of degree of curve and long chord.

**Last Answer :** Degree of curve : The angle subtended at the centre by a standard chord of 30 m length, is known as degree of curve. Long Chord : The straight line joining rear tangent point and forward tangent point is called as long chord of curve.

**Description :** Draw a neat sketch of simple curve showing all elements.

**Last Answer :** Simple curve

**Description :** Explain the setting of curve by Rankine’s deflection angle method.

**Last Answer :** Rankine's deflection angle Method:- 1) Set up theodolite at first tangent point, T1 and level it carefully, set the vernier A to 3600 2) bisect the ranging rod at the point of ... . The angle thus obtained will be set on the vernier of the theodolite for setting out the curve.

**Description :** What is the degree of curve? Derive the relationship between radius and degree of curve.

**Last Answer :** Degree of curve The degree of the curve is the angle subtended at the center by a standard chord of 30 m length. Relationship between radius and degree of curve. Referring Fig Let R = the radius of the curve in m. D ... OM = R, PM = ½ MN = 15 m. Then sin D/2 = PM/OM = 15/R

**Description :** Explain the procedure of curve setting by method of offsets from long chord

**Last Answer :** Procedure: 1. Divide the long chord into an even number of equal parts say 8,10,12 etc. 2. Set out the offset as calculated from the formula and obtain the required points on the ... ED, the offset for the right half of the curve will be the same as those on the left half side.

**Description :** sketch of simple circular curve and show notation there on

**Last Answer :** Let the distance between P and Q be D' which is to be measured. A wave transmitted from the transmitter at station P' with certain phase angle. There is a ... phase angle. For finding the distance, the phase difference between transmitted wave is measured and converted into distance.

**Description :** Draw neat sketch of simple circular curve and show notation there on.

**Last Answer :** Sketch of simple circular curve and show notation there on :

**Description :** Derive the relationship between the radius and degree of curve.

**Last Answer :** Relationship between radius and degree of curve. Referring Fig Let R = the radius of the curve in m. D = the degree of cuve.— MN = the chord 30 m long. P = Mid point of chord MN In triangle OMP, OM = R, PM = ½ MN = 15 m. Then sin D/2 = PM/OM = 15/R

**Description :** Describe the method of setting out simple curve by using the method of offset from long chord with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Given data: Direction of two straights, chainage of point of intersection, radius of curve. Procedure: 1) Set theodolite over B and measure deflection angle Ф 2) Calculate tangent length by ... equal to tangent length. 4) Divide long chord into even number of equal parts.

**Description :** Define Latitude and Departure.

**Last Answer :** Latitude : The projection of survey line parallel to meridian is called latitude. OR Projection of survey line parallel to N-S direction is called latitude. Departure: The projection of survey ... is called departure. OR Projection of survey line parallel to E-W direction is called departure.

**Description :** Define Swinging & Transiting

**Last Answer :** Swinging: It is the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane about its vertical axis. Transiting: It is the process of turning the telescope through 180° in a vertical plane about its horizontal axis

**Description :** Define transiting and swinging of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Transiting of theodolite - The vertical movement of telescope about its horizontal axis through 360 degree is known as Transiting of telescope of theodolite. Swinging of theodolite - The lateral or ... of theodolite about its vertical axis through 360 degree is known as Swinging of theodolite.

**Description :** Define following terms and give any two components of each : 1. GIS 2. GPS

**Last Answer :** GIS:- A geographic information system is a computer based tool that allows you to create, manipulate, analyze ,store & display information based on its location. Components:- 1) hardware 2) ... position &location speed and direction. Components:- 1) Antenna 2) Radio frequency

**Description :** Define tacheometry. State the principle of tacheometry with sketch.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometry : It is the branch of angular surveying in which horizontal and vertical distances are determined from instrumental observations only, is known as tacheometry. Principle of tacheometry : ... to corresponding staff intercept remains constant as shown below in figure 3

**Description :** Define grade contour. Give the procedure to locate grade contour on contour map with suitable sketch.

**Last Answer :** Grade Contour - It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is termed as grade contour. ... all the marked points will give us the required grade contour of 1 in 30 accurately.

**Description :** Define the term departure and latitude

**Last Answer :** Departure :- It is the distance parallel to the East-West line OR the projection of survey line perpendicular to the meridian is called departure. Latitude :- It is the distance parallel to the North-South line OR the projection of survey line parallel to the meridian is called latitude.

**Description :** Define 1) Telescope inverted 2) Telescope normal

**Last Answer :** Telescope Inverted :- It means bubble down & the face right position is called telescope inverted. Telescope Normal :- It means bubble up & the face left position is called as telescope normal.

**Description :** Define Grade contour.

**Last Answer :** Grade contour :- It is the contour established on a specific grade or gradient along the hill side. OR The line joining the points of equal grade or gradient is called as grade contour.

**Description :** Define 1) Contour 2) Contour Interval

**Last Answer :** Contour :- It is an imaginary line on the ground joining points of equal elevation or RLs. Contour Interval :- The vertical distance between any two consecutive contours is known as a contour interval

**Description :** Define transiting.

**Last Answer :** Transiting is the method of turning the telescope about its horizontal axis in vertical plane through 180ᴼ.

**Description :** Define zero circle.

**Last Answer :** For a mechanical or polar planimeter, when the tracing point moves along a circle without rotation of the wheel i.e. when the wheel just slides without any change in reading, the circle is known as the zero circle.

**Description :** Define the term interpolation of contours.

**Last Answer :** Interpolation of contours is the process of locating the required contours proportionately between the plotted reduced levels on sheet.

**Description :** Define tacheometer. State essential characteristics of tacheometer.

**Last Answer :** Tacheometer A tacheometer is essentially a transit theodolite having a stadia diaphragm. The diaphragm is equipped with two horizontal hairs called stadia hairs in addition to the regular cross hairs. ... The vision through the telescope should give a clear and bright image for a long distance.

**Description :** Define the terms , swinging and transiting.

**Last Answer :** Swinging: It is the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane. Transiting: It is the process of turning the telescope through 180° in a vertical plane about its horizontal axis.

**Description :** Define telescope inverted and telescope normal for transit theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Telescope Inverted: The position of telescope with the face right is known as “Telescope Inverted”. Telescope Normal: The position of telescope with the face left is known as “Telescope Normal”.

**Description :** Define interpolation of contour and state its methods.

**Last Answer :** The process of spacing the contours proportionately between the ground points is known as “Interpolation of Contours”. The contours may be interpolated by: 1. Estimation 2. Arithmetical calculations. 3. Graphical method.

**Description :** Define G.I.S. Enlist the key components of G.I.S.

**Last Answer :** Definition: A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer based tool that allows you to create, manipulate, analyze, store and display information based on its location. Components of GIS: ... plan and business rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization.

**Description :** Define zero circle. How it is found out?

**Last Answer :** Zero circle or circle of correction is defined as circle round the circumference of which if tracing point is moved, wheel will simply slide(without rotation) on the paper without any change in reading. There ... of zero circle = M C Where M= multiplying constant. C= additive constant.

**Description :** Define swing of telescope

**Last Answer :** It the process of turning the telescope in horizontal plane about vertical axis.

**Description :** Define the terms- latitude and departure.

**Last Answer :** Latitude – The projective distance of survey line parallel to meridian (i.e. N-S direction) is known as Latitude of a line. Departure - The projective distance of survey line perpendicular to meridian (i.e. N-S direction) is known as Departure of a line.

**Description :** Define horizontal equivalent .

**Last Answer :** The horizontal distance between any two successive contours is called horizontal equivalent.

**Description :** Demonstrate the utility of Remote Sensing and GIS applications in Civil Engineering with appropriate examples.

**Last Answer :** Applications of Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering 1) Silting of storage reservoirs harbors etc. - Remote sensing technique that makes use of satellite imagery gives idea about the silting of ... Impact studies 6) Natural Hazard mapping or assessment 7) Water Resources availability.

**Description :** Apply knowledge of total station to prepare a contour map by describing its procedure.

**Last Answer :** Procedure of preparing contour map using total station1) Preliminary set up - Fix the total station over a station and level it. Press the power button to switch on the instrument. ... computer in the appropriate format. 8) Using appropriate application software, contour map will be prepared.

**Description :** Describe stepwise procedure to prepare the layout of a small building using total station.

**Last Answer :** Layout of small building by using total station: 1. On the plan supplied by an architect, number the column serially from left to right and top to bottom starting from top left ... of setting out by comparing the diagonal distance between the extreme column centres to their calculated values.

**Description :** Compare radiation and intersection methods of plane table surveying on any two parameters.

**Last Answer :** Radiation method Intersection method 1. It requires the plane table to occupy a single station. 1. This method requires setting the table up at minimum of two stations. ... for locating inaccessible points by the intersection of the rays drawn from two instruments stations.

**Description :** Describe the procedure to determine co-ordinates of a station using GPS.

**Last Answer :** The following are some general GPS field survey procedures that should be performed at each station, observation, and/or session on a GPS survey. A. Receiver setup : GPS receiver shall be set up ... is to identify any problem that may exist which can be corrected before returning from the field.

**Description :** Explain the principle of techeometry with the help of a neat sketch.

**Last Answer :** Principle of tacheometry is based on principle of similar triangle in which corresponding sides & altitudes are proportional The ratio of distance of base from apex and length of base is always constant. ... S3=f/i=Constant Where f=focal length of objective and i =stadia intercept

**Description :** Explain the temporary adjustment of theodolite.

**Last Answer :** Temporary Adjustments: The temporary adjustments have to be carried out at every setup of the instrument before taking observations with the theodolite A)Setting up: 1) Place the instrument ... . The parallax can be removed by the sharp focusing until the image appears sharp and clear.

**Description :** Describe any one method of orientation of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** Orientation by back sighting method: This method is accurate and is always preferred. Procedure: 1.Suppose A and B are two stations.The plane table is set up over A. The table is leveled by spirit level ... are perfect and needle is exactly at 0-0 , the orientation is said to be perfect.

**Description :** Name two software for GPS.

**Last Answer :** Softwares for GPS 1).GPSWOX 2) iGO 3) HERE 4)Navigon 5)Navman 6)EasyGPS 7) Caliper

**Description :** List two uses of EDM.

**Last Answer :** 1.It is useful for measuring the distances that are difficult to access. 2. It is useful in topographical survey. 3.Measurement of base line in triangulation survey can be carried out speedily and ... construction of gravity dams. 5.It is useful in fixing alignment of road, railways, canals etc.

**Description :** State the function of Anallatic lens..

**Last Answer :** The function of anallatic lens is to make additive constant zero i.e.(f+d)=0 It simplifies the calculation.

**Description :** State two advantages of plane table surveying

**Last Answer :** 1.it is most rapid method of surveying. 2. it is suitable for magnetic areas. 3.The map can be prepared easily ,and does not require greater skill. 4.Irregular objects can be represented ... is less costly. 7 The check lines detects the errors of measurement and plotting on field itself.

**Description :** State any four characteristics of contours with sketches.

**Last Answer :** Characteristics of contours - The characteristics of contours are described in following statements with the help of necessary sketches. 1. All the points on contour line represent same reduced level or equal ... 8. The summit of four ridge lines represents saddle as shown in sketch 8.

**Description :** Explain direct method of contouring.

**Last Answer :** Direct method of contouring - In this method of contouring, the contours of required reduced level are plotted on ground itself. The procedure of direct method of contouring is as follows. ... identical coloured pegs, we get the required contours on ground by this direct method of contouring.

**Description :** What do you mean by zero circle in area measurement?

**Last Answer :** Zero Circle - It is the circle formed due to sliding of wheel of mechanical planimeter without changing the reading of circular measuring disc. It is unmeasured circular area on drawing sheet due to non-rotation of counter disc.

**Description :** Give the main features of total station

**Last Answer :** 1. Easy access to any desired programme and mode of selection 2. Automatic atmospheric correction 3. Guide message arrangement 4. Higher distance resolution 5. Two speed tangent resolution 6. Tri axis compensation 7. East to read arrangement 8. Detachable tribranch facility